Reading Check (pgs 536 вЂ“ 541) Russian Revolution 1. Develop a sequence of events leading to the March Revolution. 2. Who were the Bolsheviks? What promises did they make for when they came to power? 3. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Lenin in power (1917) 1. Develop a sequence of events leading to the March Revolution. A: Heavy Losses in WWI пѓ Czarina, Alexandra makes many decisions based on RasputinвЂ™s advice (Rasputin then assassinated)пѓ 10,000 women march in Petrograd demanding Peace and Bread пѓ Wave of strikes пѓ Soldiers refuse to fire on crowds пѓ Duma establishes provisional govвЂ™t. 2. Who were the Bolsheviks? What promises did they make for when they came to power? A: They were the communist party. They promised peace, bread and land. They promised to end the war immediately. 3. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: It was the peace treaty Lenin signed with the Germans. The Russians surrendered a vast amount of territory in Eastern Europe to Germany. Strikes Provisional GovвЂ™t Germans help Lenin return to Russia Bolsheviks overthrow the provisional GovвЂ™t Czar falls Lenin in power (1917) 4. What was the AlliesвЂ™ reaction to the Russian Revolution? They had troops on Russian soil supporting anti-communist forces. Their goal was to overthrow the revolution and to keep Russia in the war. 5. What was one reason the White forces were not successful? Why did the Red Army prevail? A: The Red Army was organized under Leon Trotsky. It was wellorganized and had a common goal. Anti-communist White forces had conflicting goals and were disorganized. 6. What were the Cheka? How are they described? The Cheka were the secret police. They led a reign of terror aimed at destroying anyone opposed to the revolution. Was the October Revolution a popular revolution or a coup ? March Revolution вЂў In March 1917, a general strike, which began over high food prices in Petrograd shut down the government. вЂў The Army was called in, but refused to shoot at the protesters. вЂў The Duma created a provisional government, which urged the Czar to step down. вЂў Czar Nicholas agreed because he had lost support of the army and aristocrats. вЂ“ This was the end of the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty. Provisional Government вЂў Alexander Kerensky takes power in March. He decides to continue fighting the war вЂ“ This meant resources were still being sent to the front and food shortages continued. вЂў Why did Kerensky continue to support the war, even though it caused suffering for the Russian people? Why didnвЂ™t Kerensky stop fighting? вЂў because of pressure from the Allies and fear that the Germans would take too much Russian territory as a price for peace. вЂў He was hoping for a victory to boost morale of the soldiers. Instead of offering peace, he launched the Kerensky Offensive: It was an epic fail. July Days, 1917: the Bolsheviks attept to take power in a revolution called the July Days, but are defeated. 700 people are shot. August: a pro-tsarist, General Kornilov, leads a revolt against KerenskyвЂ™s Provisional Government. The provisional government has to ask the Bolsheviks for help to defeat him. As a result, the Bolsheviks become so popular thatвЂ¦ September 1917: the Bolsheviks take control of the Petrograd Soviet, and the leader of the Red Guards, Leon Trotsky, becomes president of the Petrograd Soviet. Kronstadt sailors 25th October: In the early hours of the morning, Trotsky's Red Guards helped by the Kronstadt sailors revolt. They move quickly to take over the bridges and the telephone exchange. They cut off Petrograd from the rest of Russia. The Aurora fires a shell Next, the Red Guards take over government buildings, the banks and the railway station. Finally, at 9.40pm, signalled by a shell fired from the cruiser Aurora, they move in and take over the Winter Palace, the headquarters of the Provisional Government. There is no resistance. The Bolsheviks are now in power! Early hours 25th October 1917 25th October 1917 26th October 1917 Write what happened in this box Write what happened in this box Write what happened in this box The October Revolution. Why were the Bolsheviks successful? Lenin Organised party Trotsky Published Pravda Joined Bolsheviks after July Days Avoided capture and organised the coup. Masterminded the events of the coup Popular slogans to raise moral and public awareness Great military leader organised the Red Guard Provisional Government Kerensky knew of Trotsky's plan but had lost support of the army and so was helpless The Bolsheviks take power The Bolsheviks took control of the government in an almost bloodless coup between Oct 24 and 26 1917. Land Peace Land taken from Church, Nobility etc and given to peasants. Land not taken over by the State (yet) Press All non -Bolshevik papers were banned The first decrees Factories All factories put under control of workers committees Lenin ends the war sends Trotsky to negotiate with Germany. Treaty of Brest-Litvosk Establishes the CHEKA What was the Significance of the October Revolution? Proletariat of all countries unite! The Russian Revolution embraced an ideology of spreading revolution abroad. Treaty of Versailles The treaty of Versailles was the peace settlement in Paris in 1919. The American contribution to the treaty was WilsonвЂ™s 14 Points. The 14 Points: set new borders in Europe. Established the principle of self-determination Old Empires were falling apart and new countries and governments were formed. League of Nations Like the United Nations: The idea was to have a peaceful option to solve international problems and avoid war. Wilson insisted that there should be a peace without victors. Why would he want a peace without victors? Treaty of Versailles Demands on Germany (How did this contribute to WWII?) 1. Reparations: $32 billion dollars (mostly to France and Belgium) 2. Disarmament вЂ“ Army of 100,000 -- No heavy equipment/aircraft -- Navy: 6 ships 3. Temporary Allied occupation and demilitarization of the Rhineland 4. Loss of territory: Silesia and Posen (in Poland вЂ“ lots of Coal), Loss of Memel, and Saar to France 5. Loss of Colonies 6. Prohibition of union with Austria German Territorial losses German propaganda: Germany is weak, surrounded by powerful countries In Groups of 4 вЂў Answer the questions on the next slide. вЂў Have one person write answers on a piece of paper. вЂў Justify your answers 1. How did the Treaty of Versailles lead to German resentment? 2. If you were part of the German government, how would you react? 3. Was it justifiable to punish Germany so much? 4. Could the authors of the treaty have forseen that it might lead to another war?