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Reading Check (pgs 536 – 541) Russian Revolution

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Reading Check (pgs 536 – 541)
Russian Revolution
1. Develop a sequence of events
leading to the March Revolution.
2. Who were the Bolsheviks? What
promises did they make for when
they came to power?
3. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Lenin in power
(1917)
1. Develop a sequence of events leading to the
March Revolution.
A: Heavy Losses in WWI пѓ Czarina, Alexandra makes many
decisions based on Rasputin’s advice (Rasputin then
assassinated)пѓ 10,000 women march in Petrograd
demanding Peace and Bread пѓ Wave of strikes пѓ Soldiers refuse to fire on crowds пѓ Duma establishes
provisional gov’t.
2. Who were the Bolsheviks? What promises did
they make for when they came to power?
A: They were the communist party. They promised
peace, bread and land. They promised
to end the war immediately.
3. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: It was the peace treaty
Lenin signed with the Germans. The Russians
surrendered a vast amount of territory in
Eastern Europe to Germany.
Strikes
Provisional
Gov’t
Germans
help Lenin
return to
Russia
Bolsheviks
overthrow
the
provisional
Gov’t
Czar
falls
Lenin in power
(1917)
4. What was the Allies’ reaction to the Russian
Revolution? They had troops on Russian soil supporting
anti-communist forces. Their goal was to overthrow the
revolution and to keep Russia in the war.
5. What was one reason the White forces were not
successful? Why did the Red Army prevail?
A: The Red Army was organized under Leon Trotsky. It was wellorganized and had a common goal. Anti-communist White forces
had conflicting goals and were disorganized.
6. What were the Cheka? How are they described? The Cheka
were the secret police. They led a reign of terror aimed at
destroying anyone opposed to the revolution.
Was the October Revolution
a popular revolution or a coup
?
March Revolution
• In March 1917, a general strike, which began
over high food prices in Petrograd shut down
the government.
• The Army was called in, but refused to shoot
at the protesters.
• The Duma created a provisional government,
which urged the Czar to step down.
• Czar Nicholas agreed because he had lost
support of the army and aristocrats.
– This was the end of the 300-year-old Romanov
dynasty.
Provisional Government
• Alexander Kerensky takes power in March.
He decides to continue fighting the war –
This meant resources were still being sent
to the front and food shortages continued.
• Why did Kerensky continue to support
the war, even though it caused
suffering for the Russian people?
Why didn’t Kerensky stop fighting?
• because of pressure from the Allies and fear
that the Germans would take too much
Russian territory as a price for peace.
• He was hoping for a victory to boost morale of
the soldiers.
Instead of offering
peace, he launched the
Kerensky Offensive: It
was an epic fail.
July Days, 1917: the Bolsheviks attept to take
power in a revolution called the July Days, but
are defeated. 700 people are shot.
August: a pro-tsarist, General Kornilov,
leads a revolt against Kerensky’s
Provisional Government.
The provisional government has to ask the
Bolsheviks for help to defeat him. As a
result, the Bolsheviks become so popular
that…
September 1917: the Bolsheviks take
control of the Petrograd Soviet, and the
leader of the Red Guards, Leon Trotsky,
becomes president of the Petrograd Soviet.
Kronstadt sailors
25th October: In the early hours of the
morning, Trotsky's Red Guards helped by
the Kronstadt sailors revolt. They move
quickly to take over the bridges and the
telephone exchange.
They cut off Petrograd from the rest of
Russia.
The Aurora fires a shell
Next, the Red Guards take over government
buildings, the banks and the railway station.
Finally, at 9.40pm, signalled by a shell fired from
the cruiser Aurora, they move in and take over
the Winter Palace, the headquarters of the
Provisional Government.
There is no resistance.
The Bolsheviks are now in power!
Early hours 25th October
1917
25th October 1917
26th October 1917
Write what happened in
this box
Write what happened in
this box
Write what happened in
this box
The October Revolution.
Why were the Bolsheviks successful?
Lenin
Organised party
Trotsky
Published Pravda
Joined Bolsheviks
after July Days
Avoided capture and
organised the coup.
Masterminded the
events of the coup
Popular slogans to
raise moral and
public awareness
Great military
leader organised
the Red Guard
Provisional
Government
Kerensky
knew of
Trotsky's plan
but had lost
support of the
army and so
was helpless
The Bolsheviks take power
The Bolsheviks took control of the government in an almost bloodless
coup between Oct 24 and 26 1917.
Land
Peace
Land taken from
Church, Nobility
etc and given to
peasants. Land
not taken over by
the State (yet)
Press
All non -Bolshevik
papers were banned
The first decrees
Factories
All factories
put under
control of
workers
committees
Lenin ends the war
sends Trotsky to
negotiate with
Germany. Treaty of
Brest-Litvosk
Establishes the
CHEKA
What was the
Significance of the October Revolution?
Proletariat of all countries unite!
The Russian Revolution
embraced an ideology of
spreading revolution
abroad.
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty of Versailles was the peace settlement in Paris in
1919.
The American contribution to the treaty was Wilson’s 14 Points.
The 14 Points:
set new borders in Europe.
Established the principle of self-determination
Old Empires were falling apart and new countries and
governments were formed.
League of Nations
Like the United Nations: The idea was to have a peaceful
option to solve international problems and avoid war.
Wilson insisted that there should be a peace without victors.
Why would he want a peace without victors?
Treaty of Versailles
Demands on Germany
(How did this contribute to WWII?)
1. Reparations: $32 billion dollars (mostly to
France and Belgium)
2. Disarmament – Army of 100,000
-- No heavy equipment/aircraft
-- Navy: 6 ships
3. Temporary Allied occupation and
demilitarization of the Rhineland
4. Loss of territory: Silesia and Posen (in Poland –
lots of Coal), Loss of Memel, and Saar to France
5. Loss of Colonies
6. Prohibition of union with Austria
German Territorial losses
German propaganda:
Germany is weak, surrounded by powerful countries
In Groups of 4
• Answer the questions on the next slide.
• Have one person write answers on a piece of
paper.
• Justify your answers
1. How did the Treaty of Versailles lead to
German resentment?
2. If you were part of the German
government, how would you react?
3. Was it justifiable to punish Germany so
much?
4. Could the authors of the treaty have
forseen that it might lead to another war?
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