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PPT Lecture: Russian Revolution 1917

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Russian Revolution
Opening Focus Assignments
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1/9 “Faults of WWI Peace Treaty”
1/10 “WWI and changing values”
1/11 “Views of the War”
1/14 “Lost Generation”
1/15 “Dawes Plan”
1/18 “Path to Revolution”
Russian Government Before
Revolution
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Monarchy: The Czar (Tsar)
Until 1905 the Tsar's powers were
unlimited.
Russia had no constitution,
no political party system to check the
Tsar's power
A strong secret police which terrorized
the people.
Royal Background
Nicholas II
• Created the first secret police in Russia, brutal
leader, response to revolt of army officers in 1825
Czar Alexander II
• He implemented important reforms, notably the abolition of
serfdom,
• In 1867, he sold Alaska and the Aleutian Islands to the
United States.
• Killed by the Revolutionary Group: The People’s Will
Czar Alexander III
• Alexander III's reign was during an industrial
revolution in Russia .
• His reign was harsh, against revolutionaries and
other liberal movements.
Czar Nicholas II (1894)
Last Czar of Russia
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Nicholas II was a harsh and weak ruler
The Russian economy was bankrupt because
of the Russo-Japanese War and WWI Russia’s
entry into WWI became very unpopular.
Czar Nicholas II and Family
Russo-Japanese War (1904)
Dispute over Manchuria with
Japan
Shook national confidence in their
progress and rule of Czar.
Bloody Sunday (1905)
Russia and World War I
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Russia declares war on AustriaHungary
War becomes unpopular
Rationing leads to starvation
Nicholas II leaves St. Petersburg to war
front
Rasputin
Rasputin with Admirers
March Revolution (1917)
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1917- protests spread through St.
Petersburg and the Royal palace is
taken over.
Czar abdicates
Provisional government (Duma) takes
control lead by Alexander Keresnky
Provisional government unpopular
after decision to stay in WWI
October (Bolshevik) Revolution1917
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Lead by VI Lenin “Peace, Land, and
Bread”
Won support of people (especially
peasants)
1918
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1918 March The Bolsheviks accept the
peace of Brest-Litovsk, ending WWI with
Germany.
1919-1920
1919 White Armies (Royal and Menshevik
troops) attack the Reds (Bolsheviks) from
all directions.
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1920- Reds defeat Whites
Rule of Lenin 1920-1924
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Economic Reforms included the New
Economic Plan (NEP)
-moderate mix of capitalism and
socialism
Political Reforms
-Bolshevik party became Communist
Party
-Russia becomes the United Soviet
Socialist Republics
Communism
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A Form of Socialism
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Central Planning of the Economy by the State
Gov’t (Communist Party) makes decisions
on individual jobs and pay
1924
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Lenin Dies
Power Vaccuum
Leon Trotsky vs. Joseph Stalin
Stalin takes control
Now must decide how he will maintain
power
Decides to create a totalitarian state
Characteristics of a Totalitarian
State
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Dictatorship- Absolute Authority
Dynamic Leader- Vision for the nation
State Control Over All Sectors of Society
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State Control Over the Individual
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Business, Family Life, Labor, youth groups, housing,
religion, education, the arts
Obedience
Denies basic liberties
Organized Violence
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Uses force to crush opposition
Stalin’s Totalitarian State
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State Control of the Economy
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Police Terror
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Control of the individual
Propaganda (socialist realism)
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Great Purge, crush opposition
Religious Persecution
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5 year plan, collective farms
Molding peoples minds
Education
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Controlled by the government
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