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Russian Revolution PowerPoint

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Russian Revolution
Ms. Pugh
What was it?
Actually TWO revolutions:
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1.
2.
February/March of 1917 – overthrow of the Tzar
October/November of 1917 – Bolshevik
(Communist) Revolution
Why Important?
1.
2.
3.
Led to Russia withdrawing from WWI to
deal with internal problems.
“Communism” put into effect instead of just
an “idea.”
Conflicting ideologies – communism vs.
capitalism – was the reason for the Cold
War.
So what is Communism Anyway?
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Communism is an ECONOMIC system.
Part of Karl Marx’s theory of economics.
Says that all the “means of production” should be
owned by the government for the good of the people
– everyone “owns” everything and shares in the
profits.
Nice ideas – no hunger, everyone works to the “best
of their ability,” and everyone gets just what they
need.
Fails to take into account that we humans are
greedy and lazy!
“Intellectual Marxism”
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Karl Marx said that all of history is based
upon economics (very good argument).
Marx saw an evolution of economics –
hunting and gathering пѓ small farming пѓ manoralism пѓ commercial enterprise (small
business) пѓ cottage industry (make stuff at
home to sell) пѓ industrial revolution (so far,
so good)
More Intellectual Marxism
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Marx was living during the Industrial Revolution and
what he saw was very disturbing.
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Workers paid just enough to survive
Factory owners making huge profits and getting greedier –
how to make more money?
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Longer working hours, same pay, poor working conditions,
dangerous working situations – up to 40% of workers would
be seriously injured or killed while working in a factory
Marx said that the working conditions and poor wages of
the factory workers would not continue, that SOMEDAY
workers would join together (“workers of the world unite”)
and the proletariat would overthrow the owners and seize
property to own jointly and to benefit EVERYONE
What does Marx have to do with Russia?
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Very little – Marx said that first a country had
to go through the Industrial Revolution –
Russia had not been industrialized and it was
still a feudal society!
Russia had SOME factories, but 90% of the
population of Russia were either serfs or
peasants – they lived on the land –
feudalism.
Wait! I thought the serfs were freed in
1861?
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Technically they were; HOWEVER, they had
to actually “buy” their freedom and they had
20 years to do so, BUT how can you pay for
your freedom when you can’t leave your land
and find a job? Oh, wait, there weren’t any
jobs except on land and only peasants and
serfs could work on the land!
How did some do it?
They fought in the army, but most of them died
– very high casualty rates!
So we have peasants and serfs and…
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NOBLES – made up about 5% of the
populations, were basically all related through
one of eight noble families (Romanov,
Stroganov, etc.), and they owned about 80%
of the land (and they are not selling it for
anything).
What about the other 20% of the land?
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Well, some serfs became peasants and did
buy some land. These land-owning peasants
are called Kulaks.
They got this land through the same law that
freed the serfs – said if they could buy their
freedom they also had 20 years to pay on a
small piece of land.
The nobles aren’t giving up anymore land!
So why choose horrible communism? We
know it doesn’t work!
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We know because hindsight is 20/20, but it
sounded good to 90% of the Russian
population in 1917.
So they made this choice?
Land of Mickey
Mouse and
McDonalds!
Stand in long lines and hope to
get items to survive!
Instead
of…
No they made this choice…?
Utopia – everybody has
something and no one
goes hungry!
Living in abject poverty
with no chance of ever
advancing!
Let’s Get Back to the
Revolution
Nicholas I (1825-1855)
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Was the third son of
Paul I
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Was the Brother of
Alexander I, who died
childless
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Nicholas strove to
serve country’s needs –
Good Czar
Alexander II (1855-1881)
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Son of Nicholas I.
He came to the throne
during the Crimean War
Emancipated the serfs
in 1861 – still a good
Czar
Alexander III (1881-1894)
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Increased the
repressive powers of
the police
Limited the power of
the local assemblies
Programs against
anyone who was not
Russian
Sounds like a mean
Czar
Nicholas II (1894-1917)
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Humiliating outcome of the
Russo-Japanese war led to
The Revolution of 1905.
Soon curtailed the Dumas
(parliament)
Decided to lead troops into
battle during WWI – stupid
idea by a stupid man.
In 1917, unrest continued
and he had to abdicate
Bloody Sunday-January 22, 1905
Began in St Petersburg
пЃ® Disaster of Russo-Japanese War
revealed corruption and
incompetence of czar
пЃ® Octobrist Party
пЃ® Constitutional Democratic Party
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World War I/ Rasputin
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Had control over the
Tsar Nicholas II and the
Tsarina
Was murdered in
December 1916
World War I was a
disaster.
The Revolutions of 1917
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February Revolution (March 8, 1917)
Czar Nicholas Abdicates
Then what happens?
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For the next few months there is a “president” –
Kerensky – who rules and keeps Russia in WWI.
In April, VI Lenin arrives in Petrograd (St.
Petersburg) with the help of the Germans
Lenin believes the communist system could work in
Russia
Lenin calls for armed resurrection
October 16, 1917/November 6, 1917 (Russian
Calendar) revolution led by the Bolsheviks
(communists)
Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin are now “in charge”
What happens next?
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Glad you asked – Civil War
Civil War broke out between two groups of
Marxists (Communists)
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Bolsheviks (means “majority” in Russian, but in
fact they had fewer members) – REDS
Menshoviks (means “minority” in Russian, had
fewer members, but this is what the Bolsheviks
called them, so it stuck) -- WHITES
What was the difference?
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Politics – they both agreed on the economic
system of government; however, should
people be allowed to “vote” or should those
most “capable” rule.
Lenin voted for the later and by 1920, Russia
was firmly under his control.
Treaty of Brest Litovsk—
March 3, 1918
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Lost 32% of the
land
Lost Estonia,
Latvia, Lithuania
Much of the
Ukraine
Much of
Belarussia
Lenin didn’t care
– this was a
capitalist war
Civil War and Lenin’s Rule
From 19181921
пЃ® Reds
пЃ® Whites
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Creation of USSR
Nationalization of all
land and banks
New Economic Plan
(NEP)
Lenin dies of a
stroke
Power Struggle after Lenin’s Death and
Stalin’s Rule
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Forced collectivization
“The Great Famine”
“The Great Terror”
Purges
Gulag
Winners and Losers
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Winners
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Communist Party
Some Workers
Massive Literacy Project—
all those who learn to read
and write
Vastly improved health
care—all those who lived
longer and healthier
Women
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Losers
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Poorest peasants
Traditional Russian upper
classes
Many of those in traditional
Russian middle classes
Those killed or imprisoned
because of oppressive regime
Jews, Muslims, other ethnic
minorities
Romanovs – the royal family
was killed, and their bodies
were “secretly” disposed of –
led to rumors of their survival
True communists
Democracy
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