The Russian Revolution 1917 Pre- Revolutionary Russia пЃ® Before 1905, Russia was the last autocracy (absolutist form of monarchy) пЃ® Meaning, there was no parliament, the Czar (or Tsar) Ruled пЃ® Czar Nicholas was in power (Romanov empire) пЃ® This begins to change in 1905 Revolution of 1905 пЃ® Starts due to strikes/riots over Russo-Japanese war, especially in St. Petersburg пЃ® Nicholas II issues October Manifesto to end revolution, and promises the creation of a DUMA (parliament) пЃ® October Manifesto was successful because Czar got the middle class on his side, Revolution is over пЃ® After revolution, Czar back tracks on his promises вЂў Creates a Duma, but not as powerful as he promised 4. Development of Parties пЃ® Because now there is parliaments and elections, parties are created пЃ® KADETS, SOCIAL REVOLUTIONISTS пЃ® Social Democrats, or Marxists, support came from Urban working class, but in 1903 split into 2 groups, Mensheviks and Bolsheviks: пЃ® Bolsheviks вЂ“ (majority) small elite party, truer to Marxist roots want complete working class revolution. February Revolution, 1917 пЃ® Actually happened in March, but Russian calendar is about 2 weeks behind пЃ® By Feb. 1917, Russia was experiencing weariness in war вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў huge casualties tremendous food shortages at home harsh winters anger at profiteering пЃ® Czar is at the front, blamed for defeats, plus CzarвЂ™s wife is German пЃ® These above issues cause Russia to explode into a Revolution пЃ® Revolution was Unplanned, Unorganized, Leaderless пѓ starts as a street demonstration over bread пЃ® Ends with the abdication of the Czar and end of Romanov dynasty Provisional Government, Feb. вЂ“ Oct. 1917 пЃ® Enacts some sweeping reforms: 1. Universal Suffrage 2. Civil Equality, Civil Rights 3. 8 hour workday 4. Redistribution of Land 5. Call for creation of a Constitution пЃ® Provisional Gov looks to make great reforms, but Totally out of touch with peasants and the вЂњreal Russian situation.вЂќ Refused to end WWI for Russia! пЃ® Face 2 great challenges October Revolution, 1917 пЃ® Bolsheviks seize positions in Gov. Buildings and Communication Centers, take over and kick out Provisional Gov. пЃ® Less bloodshed than February Revolution пЃ® Less of a Revolution, more of a Coup пЃ® Lenin institutes: Leninism-often titled вЂњCommunismвЂќ but it is not even close to theoretical communism. What did the Bolsheviks do first? пЃ® LeninвЂ™s slogan: вЂњPeace Land and BreadвЂќ пЃ® Did not want to make the same mistakes as the Provisional Gov. 1. Decree on Land вЂ“ all land nationalized and turned over to Bolsheviks for re-distribution 2. Decree on Peace вЂ“ made a pact with Germany to pull Russia out of the war 3. Council of PeopleвЂ™s Commissars вЂ“ basically a group that becomes like a dictator, no elections for constitutional assembly. Outbreak of Civil War in 1919 пЃ® White Army vs. Red Army пЃ® White Army вЂ“ remains loyal to the Romanovs or the Provisional Gov., US came to aid the White army for 2 reasons пЃ± Anti-communists пЃ± Want Russia to repay war debts, which Bolsheviks would not do пЃ® Red Army - Bolsheviks, attacked those who are loyal to Czar пЃ® How did the Red Army win? вЂў Bolsheviks held central Russia, good supplies/communication вЂў White Armies were uncoordinated, did not cooperate with one another, unpopular with the peasants вЂў Red army was well lead by Trotsky вЂў Western allied forces had little stomach for intervention by 1919 Result of the Russian Revolution пЃ® Lenin starts Anti-West phenomenon пЃ® Refuses to pay any loans back to West incurred by Nicholas II пЃ® Executed Czar and his family on June16, 1918 пЃ® Thousands of people tortured and killed during the civil war. пЃ® Lenin establishes the вЂњChekaвЂќ after Red victory in Civil War and alters Russian History forever with the use of Terror as an acceptable political means.