Quebec vs. Canada Bilingualism, Quiet Revolution, Quebec Crisis The Quiet Revolution o During the 1960s there was a period of rapid change in Quebec. o The Quiet Revolution was characterized by: o The rapid and effective secularization of society; o The create of an Etat-Province (welfare state) o A transformation of the national identity among Francophone Quebecers Jean Lesage (L) and RenГ© LГ©vesque (R) are drawn into a common handshake by jovial Daniel Johnson Sr. (C). This picture was taken on the eve of Daniel Johnson's passing. All three are past Premiers of Quebec and actors of the Quiet Revolution. o Union Nationale Leader, Maurice Duplessis died in 1959 o Paul Sauve took over. o This put an end to the corrupt rule of the Union Nationale which had been dominated by the Roman Catholic Church. o The Church had openly campaigned for the Union National, as a result, allowing them to control French education institutions and hospitals. o DuplessisвЂ™ death open the doors for the Liberal party to elect Jean Lesage. o Under the Liberal party, later to be known as the National Assembly of Quebec, many changes occurred, including the following: o Investment in the public education system Creation of a Ministry of Education; o Unionization of the civil service; o Provincial government measures meant to increase QuebecersвЂ™ control over the provinceвЂ™s economy Nationalization of electricity production and distribution. (HydroQuebec) o It is during the Quiet Revolution that the Canadien(ne)s-francais(es) (French Canadians) became Quebecoise(es), thus marking a distinct evolution from passive nationalism to a more active pursuit of political autonomy. o The sovereignist Parti Quebecois was created in 1968, with Rene Levesque as its leader. The October Crisis o The October Crisis was a series of dramatic events triggered by two terrorist kidnappings in Quebec, in October 1970. o These events resulted in a Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau invoking the War Measures Act. o Allows the government to assume sweeping emergency powers. Citizens could be arrested and imprisoned without the benefit of trial or even a stated explanation. Military cordon in support of police taking surrender of terrorist Liberation cell, December 3, 1970. October Crisis Timeline o October 5, Montreal, Quebec ~ British Trade Commissioner James Cross is kidnapped by members of the вЂњLiberation CellвЂќ of the FLQ o CBC release of the FLQ Manifesto: The terms of the ransom note were the same as those found in June for the planned kidnapping of the U.S. consul. At the time the police did not connect the two. o Kidnapping demands: o o o o The release of 23 вЂњpolitical prisonersвЂќ $500,000 in gold The broadcast and publication of the FLQ Manifesto The publication of the names of the police informants for terrorist activities o An aircraft to take the Kidnappers to Cuba or Algeria o The rehiring of about 450 Lapelme postal workers who had been laid off o The cessation of all police activities o October 7 ~ Broadcast of FLQ Manifesto in all French and English speaking media outlets in Quebec. o October 10, Montreal, Quebec ~ member of the Chenier Cell approach the home of Pierre Laporte while he was playing football with his family. Laporte, the Minister of Labour and Vice-Premier of Quebec is kidnapped by members of the вЂњChenier cellвЂќ of the FLQ o October 11 ~ The CBC broadcasts a letter from Pierre Laport to the Quebec Premier, Robert Bourassa. o October 13 ~ Prime Minister Trudeau is interviewed by the CBC in respect to the military presence. o October 15 , Quebec City ~ The Government of Quebec formally requisitions the intervention of the Canadian army in вЂњaid of the civil powerвЂќ. On the same day about 3,000 students gather in a Montreal arena to show support for the FLQ. o October 16 ~ Premier Bourassa formally requests that the Government of Canada grant the Government of Quebec вЂњemergency powersвЂќ that allow them to вЂњapprehend and keep in custodyвЂќ individuals. This results in the War Measures Act. o At 4:00 am Prime Minister Trudeau made a broadcast announcing the imposition of the War Measures Act. Children gather and stare at a sight they have never seen before вЂ“ armed Canadian soldiers on the streets of Montreal. o October 17, Montreal, Quebec ~ FLG announces hostage Pierre Laporte has been executed, and the cell holding James Cross declared that they will not release Cross until their demands are met and that he would be executed if the вЂњfascist policeвЂќ discover them and try to intervene. o November 6 ~ Police raided the hiding place of the FLQ. Although three members escaped the raid, Bernard Lortie was arrested and charged with the kidnapping and murder of Pierre Laporte. o December 3, Montreal, Quebec ~ British Trade Commissioner James Cross is released by the FLQ after negotiations with police. o Marc Carbonneau, Yves Langlois, Jacques Lanctot, Jacques Cossette-Trudel and his wife Louise Lanctot are granted their request of safe passage to Cuba by the Government of Canada with approval by Fidel Castro. o December 27, Saint-Luc, Quebec ~ The three remaining members of the Chenier Cell still at large, Paul Rose, Jacques Rose and Francis Simard, are arrested after being found hiding in a 6 m tunnel in the rural farming community. Paul Rose Jacques Rose Bernard Lortie Francis Simard The Aftermath o As a result of the events from October 1970 their was an increase of support for political means of attaining independence, including support for the secessionists Parti Quebecois, which went on to take power at the provincial level in 1976. o Some say that Brian MulroneyвЂ™s 1990 attempt to quell separatist aspirations through constitutional reform was a byproduct of the October Crisis.