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Enlightenment and French Revolution

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The French Revolution
п‚—
Liberty
п‚—
п‚—
Equality
Fraternity
1
Key Concept:
п‚—
How did the Enlightenment evolve and affect society and
government?
в—¦ The scientific revolution shattered long-held views about
the universe.
п‚– This encouraged Enlightenment thinkers to question
society and government:
в—¦
в—¦
в—¦
в—¦
Locke (contract between government and governed)
Montesquieu (checks and balances)
Rousseau (individual freedom and civilization corrupts)
Voltaire (freedom of thought and expression)
в—¦ Their beliefs in the natural rights of man inspired the
American and French Revolutions.
в—¦ These ideas were RADICAL!
2
Key Concept…
Scientific
revolution
New
thinking
encouraged
New
thinking
leads to
revolutions
in America
and France
3
Ingredients for Revolution
п‚—
1688: Glorious/Bloodless Revolution in England removes
James II
в—¦ William and Mary take over
п‚– No more Catholic kings or queens
п‚– No more absolute monarchy
в—¦ Parliament
в—¦ Bill of Rights
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
Enlightenment ideas
American Revolution (1776) and Constitution (1789)
The Estates in France
в—¦ 1st Estate = clergy = wealthy/no taxes = privileged
в—¦ 2nd Estate = nobles = wealthy/few taxes = privileged
в—¦ 3rd Estate = everybody else
п‚– Bourgeoisie/middle class = some wealth = high taxes
= some rights
в—¦
в—¦
в—¦
в—¦
Bankers
Merchants
Professionals
Business owners
п‚– Farmers and peasants
4
Ingredients for Revolution…
п‚—
Monarchy: Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
в—¦ Put country in debt
п‚– Supporting American Revolution
п‚– Personal luxuries
в—¦ Louis XVI
п‚– Weak leader
◦ Couldn’t control country’s spending
◦ Couldn’t control wife’s spending
п‚– Needed more money = taxes on the 2nd Estate
в—¦ 1789: 2nd Estate forces Louis to call a meeting of
Estates-General
п‚– First such meeting in 175 years
п‚– First two estates could out vote the 3rd
Estate, even though the 3rd Estate had
more people.
в—¦ Louis sides with 1st and 2nd Estates
5
The Fuse Is Lit!
в—¦ Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes gets 3rd Estate to declare themselves
the National Assembly and become government of France
п‚– National Assembly locked out of their meeting room by king
п‚– Tennis Court Oath: National Assembly breaks down door to
tennis court and vows to stay until a constitution is created
в—¦ Some nobles and clergy join
п‚—
Painting of the National
Assembly in the tennis
court at Versailles
6
The Revolution Goes Off!
п‚—
Rumors
в—¦ King to use military against National Assembly
в—¦ King to send troops to Paris to massacre French citizens
п‚—
п‚—
Citizens arm themselves with whatever they can
July 14, 1789: The Bastille prison is stormed by a mob
looking for weapons
в—¦ Release prisoners
в—¦ Take some guards hostage and killed others
7
The Great Fear Spreads
п‚—
Rumor
в—¦ Nobles hiring outlaws to attack peasants
п‚—
Citizens break into houses of nobles
◦ Destroy legal papers (can’t owe
king or lord what can’t be
proved)
в—¦ Kill nobles
в—¦ Burn houses
п‚—
A chateau burns as peasants
riot in the countryside
8
The Great Fear Spreads…
п‚—
October 1789: Women riot at
Versailles over cost of bread
в—¦ Demands:
п‚– National Assembly provide bread
п‚– King and queen return to Paris
п‚—
August 1789: Great Fear spreads to
clergy and nobles, more of whom now
(out of fear) support National
Assembly
в—¦ National Assembly ends Estate
system
в—¦ Commoners/peasants now equal to
clergy and nobles
9
Statement of Revolutionary Ideals
п‚—
August 1789: National Assembly adopts Declaration of the
Rights of Man and of the Citizen
в—¦ Influenced by Enlightenment & U.S. Declaration of
Independence
 “Men are born and remain
free and equal in rights.”
в—¦ Rights included
п‚–
п‚–
п‚–
п‚–
п‚–
п‚–
п‚–
Liberty
Property
Security
Resistance to oppression
Equal justice
Freedom of speech
Freedom of religion
п‚– Revolutionary leaders adopt
“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
as motto (fraternity = brotherhood)
п‚—
Illustration of Declaration
of the Rights of Man and
of the Citizen
10
State-Controlled Church
п‚—
National Assembly goes
after Catholic Church
в—¦ Takes lands
п‚– Sale of church lands
helps pay off French debt
в—¦ Declares clergy will be
elected and paid as state
officials
в—¦ French peasants (mostly
Catholics) take offense
 Creates division in  Cartoon: “The Zenith of French Glory;
The Pinnacle of Liberty.” A French
revolution
revolutionary watches a beheading
while resting his foot on the head of a
hanging clergyman.
11
Royals Arrested
п‚—
June 1791: Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette try to
sneak out of country
в—¦ Arrested near Austrian border
в—¦ Attempted escape made revolutionaries even angrier at
royalty
п‚—
Arrest of Louis
XVI and his
Family,
Varennes,
1791
12
Divisions Develop
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
1791: National Assembly creates a new constitution
в—¦ Creates a limited constitutional monarchy
п‚– Strips king of most authority
п‚– Creates a Legislative Assembly
п‚– King Louis XVI agrees (no choice!)
Old problems still exist
в—¦ Food shortages
в—¦ Government debt
в—¦ Poverty
Factions split revolutionaries
в—¦ Radicals/Left: get rid of king,
redo government
в—¦ Moderates/Center: wanted some
changes in government
в—¦ Conservatives/Right: wanted to keep
a limited monarchy with few changes in government
13
Divisions Develop…
п‚—
п‚—
Г‰migrГ©s (the rich who fled France during the
revolution) took actions to try to undo the
revolution to get back their land
Sans-culottes (the lower-class in Paris) wanted
even more radical change
◦ They had no power in the assembly (but that didn’t
stop them!)
п‚—
Movie poster for A Tale of Two Cities, based on
the novel by Charles Dickens about the French
Revolution and an Г©migrГ©
п‚—
Two illustrations of sans-culottes
14
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
War and Execution
Austria and Prussia fear revolution will spread.
в—¦ They pressure France to restore monarchy.
в—¦ 1792: France responds by declaring war.
Prussian commander warns that he will destroy
Paris if royal family is harmed.
August 10, 1792: Parisians furious at threat.
в—¦ They storm the Tuileries (place where the royals were
under arrest).
п‚– Mobs massacre royal guard, takes royal family
prisoners
Storming of the Tuileries
Palace, Paris
15
War and Execution…
 Rumor: King’s supporters in Paris prisons are
going to break out and retake Paris
в—¦ Mobs raid prisons, and murder over 1,000 nobles
п‚– = September Massacres
п‚—
Radicals force
п‚—
New government
в—¦ Legislative Assembly to set aside the 1791 Constitution
в—¦ Creation of a new government, National Convention
в—¦ Abolishes monarchy
в—¦ Declares France a
republic
в—¦ Adult males given
right to vote
п‚—
Illustration by Armand Fouquier
of the September Massacres
16
War and Execution…
п‚—
National Convention, led by radical Jacobians put
Louis XVI on trial and sentence him to death
в—¦ January 21, 1793: Louis beheaded by guillotine.
п‚—
War with Prussia continues.
в—¦ Prussia and Austria are joined by
п‚– England
п‚– Holland
п‚– Spain
в—¦ National Convention
takes extreme step of
ordering a draft of men
and women
п‚—
Illustration of the
execution of Louis
XVI
17
Reign of Terror
п‚—
п‚—
Many groups in France fighting for power
в—¦ Peasants loyal to Catholic Church and/or king
в—¦ Clergy resisting government control
в—¦ Rival leaders in different regions of France
1793: Maximilien Robespierre gains power
◦ Vowed to build a “republic of virtue” by erasing
France’s past.
п‚– Changed calendar
в—¦ Eliminated Sundays
п‚– Closed churches
п‚—
Reign of Terror = Robespierre = leader of
Committee of Public Safety and virtual dictator
в—¦ Goal = protect revolution from its enemies
п‚– Bogus arrests, trials
п‚– Lots of torture and death
◦ Many “enemies of the revolution” = personal
enemies of Robespierre because of their
challenges to his power
п‚— Top: Robespierre
в—¦ Apprx. 40,000 killed
п‚— Bottom: Poster for movie
в—¦ 85% = peasants or middle class, those
version of the Scarlet
Pimpernel, a story of
who were supposed to benefit from the
intrigues and love during
revolution
the Reign of Terror
18
End of Terror
п‚—
1794: Fearing for own safety, members of
National Convention turn on Robespierre
в—¦ Demand his arrest and execution
п‚– Reign of Terror ends on July 28, 1794
with Robespierre’s execution
в—¦ Public opinion shifts
п‚– Tired of terror
п‚– Tired of inflation for necessities
в—¦ 1795: National Convention creates third
government since 1789
п‚– Gives more power to upper middle class
п‚– Creates two-house legislature (like U.S.
Congress)
п‚– Created Directory = five men acting as
executive body (like U.S. president)
п‚—
Directory gives command of France’s armies
to Napoleon Bonaparte
п‚—
п‚—
Top: Illustration of the execution of Robespierre
Bottom: Painting of Napoleon Bonaparte
19
Review
п‚—
Ideas are powerful!
в—¦ The scientific revolution shattered long-held views
about the universe.
п‚– Enlightenment questioned society and government:
в—¦ Locke (contract between government and governed)
в—¦ Montesquieu (checks and balances)
в—¦ Rousseau (individual freedom and civilization corrupts)
в—¦ Voltaire (freedom of thought and expression)
в—¦ Their radical beliefs in the natural rights of man
inspired the American and French Revolutions.
Scientific
revolution
New thinking
encouraged
New thinking leads to revolutions
in America and France
20
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