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Threats to the revolution

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ISSUE 4
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL THREATS
TO THE REVOLUTION AND HOW
THEY WERE DEALT WITH
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL THREATS
FEB REVOLUTION
INTERNAL
• General chaos
• Lenin’s Return
• Kornilov
Conspiracy
• October
Revolution
EXTERNAL
•Foreign Forces
INTERNAL
TO THE FEBURARY REVOLUTION
GENERAL INTERNAL CHAOS
PROBLEM:
• ongoing peasant rebellion
• Continuing violence amongst soldiers
• Repeated calls from Soviets to End War
• Disagreements between SR’s and the Liberals in
government about street fights, and controlling
mutinies in the Army
• RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT
• The liberals resigned. A socialist revolutionary,
Alexander Kerensky formed a new government
LENIN’S RETURN
PROBLEM:
• Lenin returned with help from the Germans, with
the aim to overthrow the Feb Revolution.
• He issued his April �Thesis’, Bolsheviks took
control of Soviets, slogan of LAND, PEACE, BREAD
RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT
• The Provisional Government were unable to stop
Lenin, until the July Days – only temporarily
KORNILOV CONSPIRACY
PROBLEM:
• Kornilov was the commander of the army, he
had demanded death of rioters and the
freedom to choose his own officers, but he
was refused by Kerensky. He ordered
resignation of Kerensky (Kerensky refused)
• RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT
• When Kornilov tried to march on Petrograd,
Kerensky called upon the Bolsheviks to
support quashing Kornilov. They were
successful
Bolshevik forces marching on Red Square
OCTOBER REVOLUTION
PROBLEM: (final threat to the Provisional Gov)
• After overthrow of Kornilov Bolshevik membership
increased.
• Leon Trotsky joined the Bolsheviks and took control
of planning for revolution
• Bolsheviks over took key areas of Petrograd, stormed
the winter palace and arrested members of the PG
• The take over was highly skilled and methodical
RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT
• The revolution thus ended with the downfall of the
Provisional Government
EXTERNAL
TO THE FEBURARY REVOLUTION
FOREIGN FORCES
PROBLEM:
• The provisional Government continued
Russia’s involvement in with the war
• They tried to boost support from citizens and
foreign allies.
• Russia as a result suffered further losses from
enemies.
RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT
• It was disastrous for Russia, PG continued but
this inturn created greater support for Lenin
and Bolsheviks
INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL THREATS
OCT REVOLUTION
INTERNAL
• Election failure
• Continuation of the
War
• Opposition from
national groups
• Counter
Revolutionary Forces
• Economic chaos
• Political Problems
EXTERNAL
•Foreign troops
INTERNAL
TO THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION
ELECTION FAILURE
PROBLEM:
• The first threat was the loss of majority in the
election after he established power
RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT
• Lenin refused to hand over power and
disbanded the Constituent Assembly and
declared him and the Bolsheviks the
Government. In 1918 they also forced left
SR’s out for opposing him.
CONTINUATION OF THE WAR
PROBLEM:
• Next threat was the continuation of war with
Germany. Lenin predicted further losses and
needed to obtain the support of common people
and counter revolutionaries.
RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT
• The Bolsheviks believed if they signed a peace
treaty the price would be too high, and they
needed to keep fighting to establish their
communist regime. but Lenin went against them
and sent Trotsky to sue for peace with Germany.
He enacted this to fulfil and election promise.
OPPOSITION FROM NATIONAL
GROUPS
PROBLEM:
• National groups were a threat as they opposed
Lenin’s rule
RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT
• Lenin issued a decree giving self determination to
non Russian people. (The poles and the Baltic were
under German control, Finland was given
independence and other countries were allowed to
have own government if friendly to Russia.
• Lenin incorporated Georgia and Ukraine and
became the USSR
COUNTER REVOLUTIONARY
FORCES
PROBLEM:
• Soon after Revolution, counter revolutionaries were formed.
• Monarchists – (large landowners, leading church figures,
former generals, merchants, big industrialists)
• Constitutional Monarchists – (middle class and middle class
intellectuals)
• Mensheviks – (although they believed in Marxism, they
believed with working with existing authorities)
• Socialist Revolutionaries- The Bolsheviks had regarded this
group as traitors)
• Nationalist Groups- (opposed Soviet control)
RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT
• Lenin wanted to quash the counter revolutionaries so he
established:
• Soviet Investigation Committee and People’s revolutionary
court
• Established the �Extraordinary Commission for Struggle with
Counter revolution and sabotage (CHEKA)
• Had Trotsky take over the Red Army, of which he became
commander in chief and instituted what was known as War
communism.
• Under War Communism the state took over the whole
economic life of the country (industry, land, transport ect)
private trading was abolished, they all bartered rather than
using cash, food went to the army, strikes were outlawed.
Trade unions were set up to spy on workers.
ECONOMIC CHAOS
PROBLEM: (AFTERMATH OF CIVIL WAR)
• After war there was a famine, strikes in
industry, inflation and shortages of raw
materials.
• Industrial production was at a standstillfactories had been destoryed and transport
was basically non exsistent
• Disease was rife – approx 20 million died.
RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT
• Lenin’s solution was to introduce the New
economic Policy (NEP)
POLITICAL PROBLEMS
PROBLEM: (AFTERMATH OF CIVIL WAR)
• Kronstadt Revolt – sailors protested war
communism, lack of freedom, called for new
elections.
• Red Guards massacred protestors
RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT
• Lenin was convinced that he has pursued the
aims of communism too quickly. Instead he
had to consolidate what had been achieved.
• New economic Policy (NEP)
EXTERNAL
TO THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION
FOREIGN TROOPS
PROBLEM:
• Foreign troops joined the �whites’ in the civil war. These
included Britain, Australians, French, Americans, Japanese and
Czechs.
• The whites and foreigners controlled the USSR except the
region around Moscow (Petrograd) they joined to eradicate
Bolshevism, which they felt could effect their own countries.
They also believed with Bolsheviks removed Russia could re
enter the war
RESPONSE/HOW IT WAS DEALT
•
•
•
•
•
Soviet Investigation Committee
CHEKA
Red Army
War Communism
By 1921 the whites and foreign troops had been driven out of the USSR and the Bolsheviks
won.
Activities
• Matching game on board
• Students take the role of a threat and play
charades.
• Sale of the century
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