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Russian Revolution

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Russian Revolution
Czar Nicholas II
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Ruled from 1894 –
1917
Ruled over Russia,
Finland and Poland
Captured by Lvov
Killed by the
Bolsheviks
Became “Nicholas
the Martyr”
Problems with Nicholas II
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Repressive and aristocratic regimes
of the Romanov dynasty
Nicholas II inability to allow any form
of reform and a refusal to release
Absolutism
Low living standard for the people of
Russia
February Revolution
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What was it?
Abdication of Czar
Nicholas II
Led by Gregory Lvov
then Alexander
Kerensky
Liberal and Socialist
coalition
Democratically elected
government
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Problems
Didn’t represent the
people
Soldiers deserting
Pressure from other
political groups
Would not end
Russia’s involvement
in WWI
Shortage of Food
Causes of October Revolution
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Severe economic and social crisis in
Russia
Russia in WWI: “This isn’t war it is
slaughter” Lenin
Corruption in Government
Large Poverty Gap
Revolutionary Middle Class
New Ideas of Marxism in Europe
Vladimir Lenin leader of the visionary
Revolutionary class
Bolsheviks “The Majority”
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Vladimir Lenin
Founder of the Party
Led the October Revolution
Became the leader
Communist Party of the
Soviet Union
Opposite of the
Mensheviks “Minority”
*Seen as dangerousGermany sent him back to
Russia to �stir things up’
and avoid problems his
causing problems in
GErmany
October Revolution
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Coup d’etat: Lenin & Trotsky’s Red
Army (October 25th, 1917)
Overtook to the Russian Provisional
Government
Established Soviet Communism
Civil War:
• Supported by foreign governments
• Bolsheviks kill all political opponents
Soviet Government
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Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(U.S.S.R.) or Soviet Union
Not Marx’s Communism
Totalitarian Government
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Nationalized Banks
Government owned factories
No private bank accounts
Church’s nationalized
Higher wages, shorter work days
All foreign debts were repudiated
Death of Lenin
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Weakened by
Revolution
Failed
Assassination
Attempt
Multiple Strokes
Died January 21,
1924
In a letter Trotsky
was to gain power
Joseph Stalin v. Leon Trotsky
Joseph Stalin v. Leon Trotsky
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Joseph Stalin
Controlled the Secret
Police (KGB)
Controlled many local
governments
Socialist Revolution
“One country at a
time”
Conspired against
Trotsky
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Leon Trotsky
Lenin’s personal pick
for Russia
Plotted against by
Stalin, Zinoviev,
Kamanev
Socialist World
Revolution
Warned of Stalin’s
mistreatment of
power
Joseph Stalin
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“Man of Steel”
Ruled from 1922-53
Exile of Trotsky and
Assassination
“Five-Year-Plans”
Collectivization of
Agriculture
Killing of Kulaks
Famine (1931-32)
Ruthless Rule over
Peasantry
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