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Russian Revolution 1917

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Russian Revolution 1917
Russian flag before
the Communist Revolution
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(USSR) flag
Russian Reform
• ROMANOV Dynasty
• Most Russians were Serfs
• 1825: 100 years of turmoil
after Czar Alexander I died
• Russia was agricultural
– 80 % were serfs who were
bound to the Nobles
• Czar had unlimited power
– but didn’t undo serfdom
• Decembrists: Army officers
who led revolt in December
1825
Czar Alexander I
– wanted a written constitution
for Russia that allowed some
of the rights of Western
Europe
Czar Nicholas I (1830s)
• RUSSIFICATION
– Russian
– Russian Orthodox Church
– Culture
• Russian Foreign Policy
– Pan-Slavism
– Continue expansion
– lost the Crimean War
• Refused to free Serfs
– crushed 500 uprisings with
landlords help
– limited education
– censored books
– set up a secret police
– leaders executed or sent to
Siberia for forced labor
Czar Alexander II (1855)
• son of Nicholas I
• Emancipation Edict
– Freed the Serfs
– but the peasants didn’t own
land.
• Peasants were part of a MIR
– peasant community
– owned, worked, and paid for
land together
– impossible to leave b/c others
would have to pay extra share
of taxes
• Zemstvos: local gov’ts
• Taxes and limited land led to
peasant riots in late 1800s
• Populists
– aka: NARODNIKI
– young students who
taught peasants to
read
– spread idea of
revolution
– Many were arrested
and sent to Siberia
– A student threw a
bomb at and killed
Alexander II
• The People’s Will
Czar Alexander III
• Ended Liberal reforms
– “senseless dreams”
• “power and right of autocracy”
• revived Russification
–
–
–
–
Autocracy
Russian Orthodox Church
Nationalism
Jewish Pogroms
• Liberals did not quit
–
Social Democratic Labor Party
– new class of urbanites
• “Bloody Sunday”
– triggered Revolut. of 1905
Czar Nicholas II (1894)
• October Manifesto
– Individual liberties
– DUMA: parliament
• Encouraged the growth of
industries
• ordered tariffs to protect products
from foreign competition
• Trans-Siberian Railway
– connect European Russia with
Russian ports on the Pacific
– Completed in 1904
– longest in the world
• Coal output 1/20 of the US
• HUGE gap between rich and poor
• Russia in the early stage of their
Industrial Revolution
Russia in World War I
• Exposed weaknesses
– Industry
– Infrastructure
• Spring 1917
– lost faith in Nicholas II
• DUMA dissolved
• Army backed DUMA
• March 1917: Nicholas II
abdicates
• Romanov Dynasty ends
– All Romanov’s were killed
• RASPUTIN
Lenin and the Bolsheviks
• Petrograd Soviet Workers’ & Soldiers’
Deputies
– Soviets = councils
• Mensheviks: socialists
• Bolsheviks: radical socialists
–
–
–
–
–
Vladimir I. LENIN
Middle class lawyer
Brother killed by czar police
“peace, land, & bread”
Anti-imperialism
• October Revolution
– aka: the Bolshevik Revolution
• became the Communist Party
• Bolsheviks called Russia the:
– Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
• USSR
• Soviet Union
Peace and Civil War
• March 1917: USSR
withdraws fm WWI
• forced to cede territory
• Civil War erupts (3 yrs)
– Vs. Mensheviks &
– right-wing groups
• Communist = REDs
• Rightwingers = WHITEs
–
–
–
–
Supporters o/t Czar
aided by Allied Powers
1921: REDs prevail
1922: USSR is named
Lenin Restores Order
• New Economic Policy (NEP)
– farmers could sell surplus for
profit
• based on writings of Karl
Marx
– “Class Struggle”
– COMMUNISM
• Gov’t controls all aspects of
the economy
– Wanted a worldwide revolution
of the proletariat
• Dies in 1924 after a series of
strokes
– body was embalmed and put
out for public display
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