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Lenin1-1905-19171

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Lenin’s Russia
1917 - 1924
Romanovs, Marxism &
Bolshevik Revolution, Civil
War & Soviet Union
Contents
• Russia in 1917:
•
April – October 1917: A Power Struggle
Begins
•
The October Revolution (1917)
•
The Russian Civil War 1918 – 1920
•
Treaty of Brest - Litovsk
•
The Comintern
• The Tsar Romanov Dynasty
• Russia 1905 – 1917 : The
Medieval Feudal System
• The February Revolution (1917)
• The Provisional Government,
February – October 1917
• Communism: Marxist Ideology & •
Class Consciousness
• Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov: Lenin
• Origin of the Soviets
•
War Communism
Lenin’s New Economic Policy (1921)
•
Death of Lenin: A Power Struggle
(c) W. McSweeneyBegins
2011
2
1905 – 1917
Political Parties & Groups
A revolution in 1905 (Bloody Sunday) had resulted in the introduction of a
parliament – Duma - however, this had little power and the Tsar simply
continued to rule undisputed if they disagreed with him
It did however, produce the formation of embryonic political parties. These
parties could now organise and propose social & political changes, even if
their powers were virtually non-existent.
• Cadets – Middle class party who wanted a parliamentary style democracy
like Britain
• Social Revolutionaries – wanted a peasant revolution
• Communists – made of Mensheviks & Bolsheviks who wanted change by
social and political uprising
• Octobrists
• Rights
(c) W. McSweeney 2011
3
Tsar Romonov Dynasty
1905 - 1917
•
Nicholas II ruled over all the Russian
peoples as had his family for the previous
300 years.
•
Autocratic and distant from the people,
he had little understanding of the
hardships of ordinary Russians. The
Nobles were loyal to the Tsar, controlling
the peasantry in the countryside.
•
Secret police (Okhrana) & press
censorship.
•
In 1917, he was at the front directing the
Russian Army in its war against the
German & Austrian Central Powers’
Alliance.
•
• 1905 Revolution had introduced a
government without real power =
DUMA
Russia was allied with Britain & France.
•Tsar was supported by the Church, the
Nobles & the Army (Cossacks) 4
(c) W. McSweeney 2011
Russia 1905 - 1917
TSAR NICHOLAS II
•
Ruled by the Romanov dynasty of Tsar
Nicholas II
•
Most of the country was peasantry
•
Tsar rule created a stagnated society, not
much removed from the Feudal System of the
Middle Ages.
DUMA
– since 1905
•
Population: 125 million people
•
Area: 2000 miles squared
•
A vast country spread across Europe & Asia
containing many nationalities, languages &
religions.
•
Aristocracy
-Church & Nobles
-Supported by Army
PEASANTRY
Living & working conditions were very
cramped and basic in industrial centres such
as St. Petersburg.
(c) W. McSweeney 2011
A Feudal System?
5
The Medieval Feudal System
AUTOCRACY
�DIVINE RULE’?
(inevitable culture
of absolute power)
KING/ LORD
VASSALS
Lords, Earls, Bishops & Church
KNIGHTS
�Freemen’
Serfs
A society whereby the KING was absolute ruler, but required the political support of the
VASSALS and the military strength of the KNIGHTS to maintain his position & authority.
Freemen & Serfs had little or no influence, representation or protection.
(c) W. McSweeney 2011
6
Revolution Stirs
“The situation is getting
worse. Something has to be
done immediately. Tomorrow
is too late. The last hour has
struck. The future of the
country and the royal family
is being decided.”
- Rodzianko, the President of the Duma,
telegraphs the Tsar.
12th March 1917
Tsar Nicholas II opening the Russian Duma in
1906
(c) W. McSweeney 2011
7
February Revolution 1917
•
8th March – International Womens’
Day: Civil unrest began when the
Russian factory workers were
placed on a bread rationing
scheme. Protests moved onto the
streets.
•
Tsar Nicholas II was busy directing
the Russian Army at the front.
•
He eventually returned to St.
Petersburg to deal with the civil
strife.
•
Initially, the Russian Army was
brought in to support the police in
putting down this protest.
•
On 13th March 1917,the Duma
forced the Tsar to abdicate
•
However, when soldiers refused to
shoot protestors, army mutiny
spread quickly throughout the
ranks.
•
However, he was intercepted on
the way and arrested as an �enemy
of the people’.
•
Russia was now under the control
of the Duma Government.
(c) W. McSweeney 2011
8
The Provisional Government
February – October 1917
1.
2.
•
•
•
The Duma now took control of Russia,
setting up a �Provisional Government’, led
by the middle-class Cadets of the old
Duma.
3.
4.
Created a 12-man Executive led by
Alexander Kerensky of the Social
Revolutionary Party. Its HQ was the
Winter Palace
5.
Ruled Russia from February to October
1917. Conservative by nature, Kerensky’s
government was faced with many
difficulties.
�Soviets’ were in control of the
people, especially in Petrograd.
Forbade their members from obeying
Provisional Government unless they
agreed.
Food shortages were still
commonplace.
The Provisional Government tried to
continue the war, attacking Austria,
until the Germans drove them back.
Return of Lenin & the growing power
of the Bolsheviks – “All Power to the
Soviets”.
Pro-Tsar Kornilov revolt – Kerensky
had to ask the Soviets (controlled by
Bolsheviks) to defend St. Petersburg.
The Red Guards were used.
(c) W. McSweeney 2011
9
Communism: A Marxist Ideology
•
Karl Marx (1818 – 1883)
•
Published the �Communist
Manifesto’ in 1848
•
Advocated �class consciousness’ of
the Proletariat (factory &
agricultural workers) to rise up and
seize the �means of production’
from the Bourgeoisie (capitalist
owners of factories & landowners)
•
“Our epoch, the epoch of the bourgeoisie,
possesses, however, this distinct feature: it
has simplified class antagonisms. Society as a
whole is more and more splitting up into two
great hostile camps, into two great classes
directly facing each other — Bourgeoisie and
Proletariat.”
• - Communist Manifesto
(c) W. McSweeney 2011
“The workers have nothing to
lose but their chains. Workers
of the world, unite!”
Karl Marx, The Communist
Manifesto (1848).10
�Class Consciousness’
TSAR NICHOLAS II
BOURGEOISIE
Powerful Minority possessing
vast economic power
*Means of Production*
Source of all economic power = political power
PROLETARIAT
Vast Majority – poor, uneducated industrial & agricultural
workers, possessing no economic or political power
Seizing the Means
ofMcSweeney
Production*
(c) W.
2011 = Seizing Power
11
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
�Lenin’
• 1870 – 1924
• In 1896, Lenin was exiled to
Siberia. Upon his release in 1900,
he decided to leave Russia with his
partner.
• Returned to Russia (St. Petersburg)
on a sealed train in April 1917.
• On this journey, Lenin wrote what
became known as the �April
Theses’ in which he advocated his
main ideas:
� “Peace, Land, Bread”
� “All Power to the Soviets”
пѓ� End to the Imperialistic War
(c) W. McSweeney 2011
12
Origin of the �Soviets’
“The Soviet was the axis of all events,
every thread ran towards it,
every call to action emanated from it.”
Leon Trotsky, 1905
Originated in 1905 in the aftermath of the �Bloody Sunday’ repression of striking workers
(town of Ivanovo-Voznesensk first organised all its workers into Soviets simultaneously)
•
•
•
•
•
Translates as “council”
Made up of factory workers, agricultural workers & soldiers
Over 900 in existence by 1917
In urban areas, made up of factory workers & soldiers
In rural areas, made up of agricultural workers & soldiers
• Represented, pre-1917, the only way for people to protect and maintain their
interests in a society without proper representation & without workers’ rights.
(c) W. McSweeney 2011
13
April – October 1917
A Power Struggle Begins
•
•
Provisonal Government
Bolsheviks
Kerensky
Lenin
The Provisional Government was
moderate & conservative, made up of the
Cadets – middle-class people who wanted
a parliamentary democracy like Britain
•
Soviets represented poor factory &
agricultural workers
•
Lenin & the Bolsheviks were militant
revolutionaries = they had no interest in
creating a western-style, unequal society
with upper, middle and lower classes.
•
“Peace, Land, Bread” – Lenin & the
Bolsheviks had no interest in pursuing
aggressive foreign policies, using the
ordinary rural & urban workers as �cannon
fodder’ to achieve conquests against other
countries who used THEIR rural & urban
workers as �cannon fodder’.
Economic interests = create a strong
middle class to promote economic growth
& personal wealth.
•
This would be dependant on creating a
large working class, with little control over
economic resources.
•
Pursue an aggressive foreign policy,
maintaining allegiances with other
countries like Britain & France i.e. World
War I.
Inevitably, the mass of factory, agricultural workers & soldiers knew that Lenin
& the Bolsheviks protected their interests and promoted social equality
(c) W. McSweeney 2011
14
Reasons for
October Revolution 1917
•
By October, Kerensky’s Provisional
Government was in complete
disarray. Aims were complicated,
communication with the people
was confused.
•
Lenin led a powerful Bolshevik
organisation, responsible for
defending St. Petersburg from
Kornilov’s attack
•
Lenin was also backed by German
money. (Germans hoped that
funding revolutionary change in
Russia would relieve them from
continuing war on Eastern Front).
•
The Red Guards (armed & trained
factory workers, first organised in
1905 Revolution & re-constituted in
1917) led by Leon Trotsky were
efficient and determined. Had
already succeeded in defending St.
Petersburg from Kornilov’s attack.
•
Pravda (�The Truth’). The
Bolsheviks publicised their own
ideas through their official
newspaper, helping to spread
confidence and information about
their party and their aims.
(c) W. McSweeney 2011
15
Lenin’s Appeal to the People
Lenin &
�P
R
A
V
D
A’
Central Committee
of
Bolsheviks
Lenin &
Bolsheviks
supported
Soviets
by
the
Red Guards
Factory Workers
(Leon Trotsky)
(membership grew to 2 million in 3 months)
(c) W. McSweeney 2011
16
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