The Industrial Revolution What was it? пЃ® the change from an agricultural society to industrial because new factories in the northeast states When did it happen? пЃ® the Industrial Revolution began in the United States around 1800 in the New England states Why did it begin the Northeast? пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® New England had poor soil for farming Northeast has many rivers = waterpower for factories NE had port cities for shipping to other states and across the Atlantic Subsistence farmers were willing to move to the cities The Industrial Revolution occurred because ofвЂ¦ пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® FREE ENTERPRISE вЂ“ people are free to buy, sell, own, and produce products as well as work wherever they choose Which founding father supported an economy based on free enterprise? The government had few regulations to control the economy пЃ® пЃ® The Industrial Revolution required the invention of new machines and technology вЂ“ which is scientific discoveries that simplify work. Congress created patents to protect inventorsвЂ™ new inventions from being copied. пЃ® Ultimately, the Industrial Revolution occurred as a combination of the following events: Rise of the factory system Use of steam power Mass production of goods Industrial Revolution The Cotton Gin пЃ® Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which was a simple machine that quickly and efficiently removed seeds from cotton. Farm production increased dramatically. Eli WhitneyвЂ™s Cotton Gin, 1791 пЃ® пЃ® Cotton became more profitable = an increase in the need for slave labor Removed seeds from cotton What does a pound of cotton look like? Factories пЃ® Factory System вЂ“ a system bringing manufacturing steps together under one roof or in one place. Most employees were women and children working LONG hours. пЃ® пЃ® Francis Lowell- opened the Lowell factory in Massachusetts. Employed mostly young girls to work in difficult conditions for long hours and low wages. These conditions had an impact on the child labor laws the U.S. has today. Lowell, Massachusetts in 1850 Lowell Mill Lowell Girls пЃ® пЃ® Francis Lowell opened the factory What was their typical вЂњprofileвЂќ? вЂ“ young girls, bad conditions, long hours Lowell Boarding Houses пЃ® What was boarding house life like? Irish Immigrant Girls at Lowell New Development вЂ“ Interchangeable Parts пЃ® Interchangeable parts вЂ“ identical machine parts that could be quickly put together to make a complete product Importance of Interchangeable parts Allowed for mass production of a variety of goods soвЂ¦ prices were reduced Eli Whitney & Interchangeable Parts пЃ® Could build 10 different rifles from these pieces пЃ® textile industries -factories that produced clothing and cloth items from cotton; located in North Early Textile Loom New England Textile Centers: 1830s The Cotton GinвЂ™s Impact on Slavery пЃ® The demand for southern cotton grew dramatically because of the cotton gin and the increased number of textile mills in the north that needed cotton more northern textile mills = more southern slaves! Brief Summary of the Plantation System пЃ® Large plantations were comprised of several thousand acres. Plantation owners had slaves to do all the work. Some worked in the house, some were trained as blacksmiths, carpenters, shoe makers, or weavers, and others worked with animals in pastures. However, most worked long hours in the fields. The Cotton Gin ContinuedвЂ¦ пЃ® The cotton gin made it possible to clean cotton faster and less expensively than by hand. This encouraged the planters to raise larger cotton crops which required more slaves. Therefore. . . cotton gin = higher demand for cotton = more textile mills in north = more slaves in south to work plantations Which leads toвЂ¦ Regional Specialization пЃ® пЃ® North вЂ“ industrialization South вЂ“ agriculture (cotton and slavery) Farming During the Industrial Revolution пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® New England farms were small, usually subsistence farms Western farmers raised pork and cash crops such as corn and wheat. Southern farmers planted cash crops such as cotton, rice, and tobacco Urbanization Prompted by Industrial Revolution пЃ® пЃ® Growth of factories and trade caused the growth of towns and cities Locations of factories depended on the geography of the area Urban = Cities Rural = Country Five Common Problems of Early Cities 1.Streets and sidewalks unpaved & animals roaming freely 2.Pollution from factories 3. No sewers 4. Diseases easily spread due to poor sanitation 5. Fires spread easily due to close quarters and few fire companies The Census and Population пЃ® пЃ® Census вЂ“ officially counts the population of the U.S. every 10 years The first census occurred in 1790 and the population of the United States was nearly 4 million The 1790 Census First Census пЃ® пЃ® Most of the population lived east of the Appalachian Mountains and within a few hundred miles of the Atlantic coast By 1820, the population reached 10 million with 2 million living west of the Appalachian Mountains U.S. Population Centers in 1820 U.S. Population Centers in 1860 Thought Spot пЃ® Look at the population maps from 1820 and 1860. вЂўWhat were the U.S. largest cities in 1820? вЂўWhat were the U.S. largest cities in 1860? Transportation пЃ® пЃ® Because the nation needed good inland roads for travel and for the shipment of goods, private companies built turnpikes or toll roads Fees paid to use these roads were used for construction and upkeep of the roads вЂњPay to use the road!вЂќ пЃ® The National Road was approved by Congress in 1806 that connected the east with the west. The first section opened in 1818, connecting Maryland to western Virginia. Years later, it ended in Illinois. The National Road made the migration of people easier. National Road, 1818-1838 Pros & Cons to River Travel пЃ® пЃ® More comfortable than horse & buggy Get ALL goods on barges & float direction of current пЃ® пЃ® Most rivers ran north & south BUTвЂ¦most people traveling to the west! Upstream against current slow Clipper Ships пЃ® Moved quickly through waters вЂ“ вЂњclippedвЂќ time off the trip across the Atlantic The Steamboat пЃ® пЃ® Robert Fulton developed the first steamboat in 1807; named вЂњClermontвЂќ Early steamboats easily blew up because there were no regulations on who could run steamboats and the boilers that created steam had no safety valve to stop overheating and slow pressure Robert Fulton and the Steamboat пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Steamboat Effects: improved transport goods & people on inland rivers economic productivity (ship goods вЂ“ faster, easier, cheaper) helped river cities grow вЂ“ St. Louis The Clermont вЂ“ 1807 Canals пЃ® пЃ® Canal вЂ“ an artificial (man-made) waterway The first canal was the 363 mile Erie Canal connecting Albany, New York on the Hudson River to Buffalo, New York on Lake Erie. It was completed on October 26, 1825. Erie Canal вЂ“ 1825 Canals ContinuedвЂ¦ пЃ® Three results of the increase in canals in the U.S. between 1825 and 1850: 1. Canals lowered the cost of shipping goods 2. Brought prosperity (money) to towns along their routes 3. Helped unite the growing country The Railroads Connect America! The вЂњIron HorseвЂќ 1830 1830 пѓ 13 miles of track 1850 пѓ 9000 mi. of RR track 1860 пѓ 31,000 mi. The Railroad Revolution, 1850s пЃ® пЃ® Immigrants built the northern railroads Slaves built the southern railroads Issues Caused by Industrial Revolution пЃ® The Industrial Revolution led to some issues regarding the powers of the federal government versus those of the states. The Supreme Court stepped in to help settle these issues. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) пЃ® The state of Maryland imposed a tax on the Second National Bank, hoping the taxes would shut down the federal bank вЂў Why? Federal banks competed with state banks McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) пЃ® пЃ® James McCulloch was the cashier of the federal bank and refused to pay the tax вЂў Why? Said state legislatures could not tax federal banks The state of Maryland sued for payment вЂў McCulloch, after losing in state courts, took his argument to the U.S. Supreme Court McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) пЃ® пЃ® John Marshall was the Chief Justice Tested the relationship between federal and state law вЂў Does Congress have the power to create a bank вЂў Does Maryland have the right to tax a federal institution McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) пЃ® The CourtвЂ™s Ruling вЂў Yes вЂ“ Congress has the right charter (create) a national bank пЃ® Why? The elastic clause (also called вЂњnecessary and properвЂќ clause) of the Constitution gave Congress the right to do whatever is вЂњnecessary and properвЂќ to carry out its powers вЂў No вЂ“ Maryland did not have the right to tax the federal bank пЃ® Why? Federal law trumps state law Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Ogden had been granted a monopoly by the state of New York to run a steamboat ferry between New York and New Jersey вЂў Monopoly вЂ“ the only one licensed to do something Gibbons had been granted a similar monopoly by the federal government Two monopolies grantedвЂ¦who has the real right to run the ferry? Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) пЃ® пЃ® Ogden sued in New York and won; Gibbons appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall made the following ruling вЂў Congress had the power to regulate ferry boats crossing the Hudson River between New York and New Jersey пЃ® Why? Congress controlled вЂњinterstate commerceвЂќ (trade between states) вЂў BasicallyвЂ¦states controlled business within their state, but once it crossed state lines into another, Congress had the power Thought Spot пЃ® Make a comparison of the following Supreme Court Decisions, under the direction of Chief Justice John Marshall, using the information previously discussed and prior knowledge. Court Case Year Description Impact Marbury v. Madison McCulloch v. Maryland Gibbons v. Ogden 1803 1819 1824 How much influence does the Supreme Court have on our nationвЂ™s laws? Can Congress create a national bank and can the state tax the federal government? Judicial review Who controls business when two or more states are involved? Yes, Congress can Congress create a bank controls вЂњinterstate No, the state commerceвЂќ (trade cannot tax the between two or more states) federal govt Era of Good Feelings пЃ® пЃ® Era of Good Feelings started with James MonroeвЂ™s presidency, after the War of 1812. Little to no political conflicts were taking place. Nationalism is the allegiance or loyalty to your whole nation. This started during the Era of Good Feelings. This Era did not last long, however! пЃ® пЃ® Americans had strong allegiance to the region of the US they lived in вЂ“ Westerners, Southerners, or Northerners Leads to problems known as Sectionalism Sectionalism Disagreements Among North And South 1.Slavery 2. Need for tariffs 3. StatesвЂ™ rights 4. Internal improvements (paying for the improvements in U.S. transportation systems) Southern Spokesman John C. Calhoun вЂ“ represented South Carolina пЃ® said NO to tariffs вЂ“it would raise prices of manufactured goods that South had to buy пЃ® Northern Spokesman Daniel Webster вЂ“ represented New Hampshire пЃ® said YES to tariffs вЂ“ protect American industries from foreign competition because foreign goods would cost more $ (buy пЃ® American!) Western Spokesman Henry Clay вЂ“ represented Kentucky пЃ® Tried to compromise with both пЃ® Thought Spot пЃ® Create a bridge map relating the spokesmen to the area they represent Monroe Doctrine пЃ® пЃ® While the U.S. would not interfere with any existing European colonies in the Americas, it would oppose any new ones. This set the U.S. up as the вЂњprotector of the Western Hemisphere.вЂќ The Monroe Doctrine also enforces what Washington stated in his farewell address вЂ“ that the U.S. will only be involved in European conflicts if the U.S.вЂ™s rights were disrupted.