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The Industrial Revolution

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The Industrial
Revolution
What was it?
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the change from an
agricultural society to
industrial because new
factories in the
northeast states
When did it happen?
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the Industrial Revolution
began in the United
States around 1800 in
the New England states
Why did it begin the Northeast?
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New England had poor soil for
farming
Northeast has many rivers =
waterpower for factories
NE had port cities for shipping to
other states and across the
Atlantic
Subsistence farmers were willing
to move to the cities
The Industrial Revolution occurred
because of…
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FREE ENTERPRISE – people
are free to buy, sell, own, and
produce products as well as work
wherever they choose
Which founding father supported an
economy based on free enterprise?
The government had few
regulations to control the economy
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The Industrial
Revolution required
the invention of new
machines and
technology – which
is scientific
discoveries that
simplify work.
Congress created
patents to protect
inventors’ new
inventions from being
copied.
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Ultimately, the Industrial Revolution
occurred as a combination of the
following events:
Rise of the
factory
system
Use of
steam
power
Mass
production
of goods
Industrial
Revolution
The Cotton Gin
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Eli Whitney invented
the cotton gin,
which was a simple
machine that quickly
and efficiently
removed seeds from
cotton. Farm
production increased
dramatically.
Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791
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Cotton became more
profitable = an
increase in the need for
slave labor
Removed seeds from
cotton
What does a pound of cotton
look like?
Factories
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Factory System –
a system bringing
manufacturing
steps together
under one roof or
in one place. Most
employees were
women and
children working
LONG hours.
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Francis Lowell- opened the Lowell
factory in Massachusetts. Employed
mostly young girls to work in
difficult conditions for long hours and
low wages.
These conditions had an impact on
the child labor laws the
U.S. has today.
Lowell, Massachusetts in 1850
Lowell Mill
Lowell Girls
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Francis Lowell
opened the
factory
What was their
typical “profile”?
– young girls,
bad conditions,
long hours
Lowell Boarding Houses
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What was boarding house life like?
Irish Immigrant Girls at Lowell
New Development –
Interchangeable Parts
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Interchangeable parts –
identical machine parts that
could be quickly put together
to make a complete product
Importance of
Interchangeable parts
Allowed for mass
production of a
variety of goods
so…
prices were reduced
Eli Whitney & Interchangeable Parts
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Could build 10 different rifles from
these pieces
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textile industries -factories
that produced clothing and
cloth items from cotton;
located in North
Early Textile Loom
New England
Textile
Centers:
1830s
The Cotton Gin’s Impact on Slavery
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The demand for southern cotton
grew dramatically because of the
cotton gin and the increased number
of textile mills in the north that
needed cotton
more northern textile mills
=
more southern slaves!
Brief Summary of the
Plantation System
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Large plantations were
comprised of several
thousand acres.
Plantation owners had
slaves to do all the
work. Some worked in
the house, some were
trained as blacksmiths,
carpenters, shoe
makers, or weavers,
and others worked with
animals in pastures.
However, most worked
long hours in the fields.
The Cotton Gin Continued…
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The cotton gin made it possible to clean
cotton faster and less expensively than by
hand. This encouraged the planters to
raise larger cotton crops which required
more slaves.
Therefore. . .
cotton gin
=
higher demand for cotton
=
more textile mills in north
=
more slaves in south to work
plantations
Which leads to…
Regional Specialization
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North – industrialization
South – agriculture
(cotton and slavery)
Farming During the Industrial
Revolution
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New England farms
were small, usually
subsistence farms
Western farmers
raised pork and
cash crops such as
corn and wheat.
Southern farmers
planted cash crops
such as cotton,
rice, and tobacco
Urbanization Prompted by
Industrial Revolution
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Growth of factories and trade
caused the growth of towns and
cities
Locations of factories depended
on the geography of the area
Urban = Cities
Rural = Country
Five Common Problems of
Early Cities
1.Streets and
sidewalks
unpaved &
animals
roaming
freely
2.Pollution
from
factories
3. No
sewers
4. Diseases
easily
spread
due to
poor
sanitation
5. Fires spread easily
due to close
quarters and
few fire
companies
The Census and Population
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Census – officially counts the
population of the U.S. every 10
years
The first census occurred in
1790 and the population of the
United States was nearly 4
million
The 1790 Census
First Census
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Most of the population lived east of
the Appalachian Mountains and
within a few hundred miles of the
Atlantic coast
By 1820, the population reached 10
million with 2 million living west of
the Appalachian Mountains
U.S. Population Centers in 1820
U.S. Population Centers in 1860
Thought Spot
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Look at the population maps
from 1820 and 1860.
•What were the U.S. largest
cities in 1820?
•What were the U.S. largest
cities in 1860?
Transportation
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Because the nation needed good
inland roads for travel and for the
shipment of goods, private
companies built turnpikes or toll
roads
Fees paid to use these roads were
used for construction and upkeep of
the roads
“Pay to use the road!”
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The National Road was
approved by Congress in 1806
that connected the east with the
west. The first section opened in
1818, connecting Maryland to
western Virginia. Years later, it
ended in Illinois. The National
Road made the migration of
people easier.
National Road, 1818-1838
Pros & Cons to River Travel
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More comfortable
than horse &
buggy
Get ALL goods on
barges & float
direction of current
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Most rivers ran
north & south
BUT…most people
traveling to the
west!
Upstream against
current slow
Clipper Ships
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Moved quickly through waters – “clipped”
time off the trip across the Atlantic
The Steamboat
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Robert Fulton developed the first steamboat in
1807; named “Clermont”
Early steamboats easily blew up because there
were no regulations on who could run
steamboats and the boilers that created steam had
no safety valve to stop overheating and slow
pressure
Robert Fulton and the Steamboat
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Steamboat Effects:
improved transport
goods & people on
inland rivers
economic
productivity (ship
goods – faster,
easier, cheaper)
helped river cities
grow – St. Louis
The Clermont – 1807
Canals
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Canal – an artificial (man-made) waterway
The first canal was the 363 mile Erie Canal
connecting Albany, New York on the Hudson
River to Buffalo, New York on Lake Erie. It
was completed on October 26, 1825.
Erie Canal – 1825
Canals Continued…
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Three results of the increase in
canals in the U.S. between 1825
and 1850:
1. Canals lowered the cost of
shipping goods
2. Brought prosperity (money) to
towns along their routes
3. Helped unite the growing country
The
Railroads
Connect
America!
The “Iron Horse” 1830
1830 пѓ 13 miles of track
1850 пѓ 9000 mi. of RR track
1860 пѓ 31,000 mi.
The Railroad Revolution, 1850s
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Immigrants
built the
northern
railroads
Slaves built
the southern
railroads
Issues Caused by Industrial
Revolution
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The Industrial Revolution led to
some issues regarding the
powers of the federal
government versus those of the
states. The Supreme Court
stepped in to help settle these
issues.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
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The state of Maryland imposed a tax on
the Second National Bank, hoping the
taxes would shut down the federal bank
• Why? Federal banks competed with
state banks
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
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James McCulloch was the
cashier of the federal bank
and refused to pay the tax
• Why? Said state
legislatures could not tax
federal banks
The state of Maryland sued
for payment
• McCulloch, after losing in
state courts, took his
argument to the U.S.
Supreme Court
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
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John Marshall was the Chief
Justice
Tested the relationship
between federal and state
law
• Does Congress have the
power to create a bank
• Does Maryland have the
right to tax a federal
institution
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
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The Court’s Ruling
• Yes – Congress has the right
charter (create) a national bank
пЃ® Why? The elastic clause (also
called “necessary and proper”
clause) of the Constitution gave
Congress the right to do
whatever is “necessary and
proper” to carry out its powers
• No – Maryland did not have the
right to tax the federal bank
пЃ® Why? Federal law trumps state
law
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
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Ogden had been granted a
monopoly by the state of New York
to run a steamboat ferry
between New York and New Jersey
• Monopoly – the only one
licensed to do something
Gibbons had been granted a
similar monopoly by the federal
government
Two monopolies granted…who has
the real right to run the ferry?
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
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Ogden sued in New York and won; Gibbons
appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court
Chief Justice John Marshall made the
following ruling
• Congress had the power to regulate ferry boats
crossing the Hudson River between New York
and New Jersey
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Why? Congress controlled “interstate commerce”
(trade between states)
• Basically…states controlled business within their
state, but once it crossed state lines into
another, Congress had the power
Thought Spot
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Make a comparison of the following Supreme Court Decisions,
under the direction of Chief Justice John Marshall, using the
information previously discussed and prior knowledge.
Court Case
Year
Description
Impact
Marbury v.
Madison
McCulloch v.
Maryland
Gibbons v.
Ogden
1803
1819
1824
How much
influence does the
Supreme Court
have on our
nation’s laws?
Can Congress
create a national
bank and can the
state tax the
federal
government?
Judicial review
Who controls
business when
two or more
states are
involved?
Yes, Congress can Congress
create a bank
controls
“interstate
No, the state
commerce” (trade
cannot tax the
between two or
more states)
federal govt
Era of Good Feelings
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Era of Good Feelings started with
James Monroe’s presidency, after the
War of 1812. Little to no political
conflicts were taking place.
Nationalism is the allegiance or
loyalty to your whole nation. This
started during the Era of Good
Feelings.
This Era did not last long, however!
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Americans had strong allegiance
to the region of the US they
lived in – Westerners,
Southerners, or Northerners
Leads to problems known as
Sectionalism
Sectionalism Disagreements
Among North And South
1.Slavery
2. Need for tariffs
3. States’ rights
4. Internal improvements
(paying for the improvements
in U.S. transportation
systems)
Southern Spokesman
John C. Calhoun –
represented South
Carolina
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said NO to tariffs
–it would raise
prices of
manufactured
goods that South
had to buy
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Northern Spokesman
Daniel Webster –
represented New
Hampshire
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said YES to tariffs –
protect American
industries from
foreign competition
because foreign goods
would cost more $ (buy
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American!)
Western Spokesman
Henry Clay –
represented Kentucky
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Tried to compromise
with both
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Thought Spot
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Create a bridge map relating the
spokesmen to the area they
represent
Monroe Doctrine
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While the U.S. would not interfere
with any existing European colonies in
the Americas, it would oppose any new
ones. This set the U.S. up as the
“protector of the Western
Hemisphere.”
The Monroe Doctrine also enforces what
Washington stated in his farewell
address – that the U.S. will only be
involved in European conflicts if the
U.S.’s rights were disrupted.
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