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Russian Revolution - lmartinez

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THE RUSSIAN
REVOLUTION
AMERICAN HISTORY
11TH GRADE
Introduction
• The Russian Revolution of 1917 is also
called the Bolshevik Revolution or the
October Revolution.
• In 1917 there were actually
TWO revolutions in Russia.
1. The February Revolution
• In which the Czar abdicated
his throne and the Provisional
Gvernment took power.
2. The October Revolution
• In which the Provisional
Government was overthrown
by the Bolsheviks.
The Russian Revolution of 1917 played
a very importan role in world history.
February Revolution
In 1917 Russia was again at war (WWI) and they
were losing to the Germans mainly because
they lacked the modern industry to support its
war effort and didn’t have an adequate
railroad system to get supplies to the front.
As in 1905 when revolution broke out,
confidence was not very high in the Czar
Nicholas II.
• Becaue of the war Russia had the following
problems:
1.-Food supplpies were low.
2.-Unemployment was high.
3.-And inflation was out of control.
Because of these conditions many workers joined
revolutionary organizations known as Soviets.
• This revolution appeared to break out
spontaneously, without any real leadership
or formal planning.
• The miserable conditions couples with
385,000 workers on strike in Petrograd (now
St. Petersburg) led to a combustible
situation.
• It was the lack of bread that provdided
the spark to the revolution.
• Bread rioters and industrial strikers were
joined on the streets by disaffected
soldiers. As more and more troops
deserted, and with loyal troops at the
Front, the city fell into chaos.
• On February 28, 1917 Nicholas II abdicated
his thrones, czarist forces surrendered, and
the CzarВґs ministers were arreseted.
• This would be the end of the last czarist
regimes in Russia.
• Put in its place was the Provisional
Government which consisted of a
coalition of conservatives, moderate,
and liberal socialists.
• One of the first they voted on was to
free political prisoners.
The October Revolution
• Also known as the Great
October Socialist
Revolution, Red October, or
the Bolshevik Revolution.
• It was a political revolution,
mass insurection and a part
of the Russian Revolution of
1917.
• It took place with an armed
insurrection in Petrogard on
October 25, 1917.
• It followed the February Revolution of the
same year.
The October Revolution in
Petrogard overthrew the Russian Provisional
Government and gave power to the local
soviets dominated by Bolsheviks.
Bolsheviks
• Derives from the word bol´shinstvo, “majority”. The
Bolsheviks came to power in Russia during the October
Revolution, and founded the Russian Soviet Federative
Socialist Republic which would later in 1922 become the
Soviet Union.
• The Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin, were by 1905 a
mass organization consisting primarily of workers, who
considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary
working class of Russia.
• On July 8th 1917, Alexander Kerensky became the
new leader of the Provisional Government.
•
Kerensky was still the most popular man in the
government because of his political past. However,
Kerensky was unwilling to end the war. In fact, soon
after taking office, he announced a new summer
offensive.
• Soldiers on the front were upset at the news
and regiments began to refuse to move to the
front line. There was a rapid increase of men
deserting the army. An estimated 2 million men
had left the army.
• Some of these men returned
home
and
used
their
weapons to seize land from
the nobility.
• Kerensky and the Provisional
Government issued warning
but were powerless to stop
the redistribution of land in
the countryside.
• On July 19th, Kerensky gave orders for the
arrest of leading Bolsheviks who were
campaigning against the war.
• This included Vladimir Lenin and other men.
• People were urging to overthrow the Provisional
Government. Lenin agreed and on the evening
of October 24, 1917, orders were given for the
Bolsheviks to take over.
• Power was handed
over to the Soviet
Council of People’s
Comissars. Vladimir
Lenin was elected
chairman and Joseph
Stalin also recieved a
position
in
the
government.
QUICK
SUMMARY
1917 Russian Revolution
• The 1917 Russian Revolution was not, as many
people suppose, one well organized event in
which Czar Nicholas II was overthrown and
Lenin and the Bolsheviks took power.
• It was a series of events that took place during
1917, which entailed two separate revolutions in
February and October (with a great deal of
political events in between), and which
eventually plunged the country into Civil War
before leading to the founding of the
Communist
State.
• The
February
Revolution
(1917)
On 23rd February 1917 the International Women's Day Festival in
St. Petersburg turned into a city-wide demonstration, as
exasperated women workers left factories to protest against
food shortages. Men soon joined them, and on the following
day - encouraged by political and social activists - the crowds
had swelled and virtually every industry, shop and enterprise
had ceased to function as almost the entire populace went on
strike.
Nicholas ordered the police and military to intervene, however
the military was no longer loyal to the Czar and many mutinied
or joined the people in demonstrations. Fights broke out and
the whole city was in chaos. On October 28th over 80,000
troops mutinied from the army and looting and rioting was
widespread.
Faced with this untenable situation Czar Nicholas abdicated his
throne.
The October Revolution
• With Russian politics still in a state of constant flux, Lenin
realized that now was the time to capitalize on his party's
popularity. He planned a coup d'etat that would
overthrow the increasingly ineffective Provisional
Government and replace them with the Bolsheviks.
• October 24th was the date decided upon, and on that
day troops loyal to the Bolsheviks took up crucial
positions in the city.
• That day Kerensky fled the Palace by car, never to return
to Russia. On the 26th the Palace was taken with barely a
shot fired, and Lenin's October Revolution had been
achieved with the bare minimum of drama or
bloodshed.
The Cold War
American History Class
IV Quarter
Introduction
• Was a continuing state of political and
military tension between the powers of
the Western World, led by the United
States, and the communist world, led by
the Soviet Union.
• In other words, the Cold War is the name given to
the RELATIONSHIP that developed primarily between
the USA and USSR after WWII.
• The Cold War was to dominate International Affairs
for decades and many major crisis occurred – the
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS, VIETNAM, AND THE BERLIN
WALL being just some.. For many the growth in
weapons of mass destrution was the most worrying
issue.
• This began after the success of their
temporary wartime alliance against Nazi
Germany, leaving the USSR and the US as
two
superpowers
with
profound
economic and political differences.
SO WHY WERE THESE TWO SUPERPOWERS
DISTRUSTFUL OF EACH OTHER?
AMERICA
SOVIET UNION
Free elections
No elections or fixed
Democratic
Autocratic/Dictatorshi
p
Capitalist
Communist
Richest world
power
Poor economic base
Personal freedom
Society controlled by
the NKVD (secret
police)
Freedom of the
media
Total censorship
“Survival of the
fittest”
Everybody helps
everybody
• The Cold War was
so named as it
never
featured
direct
military
action, since both
sides
possessed
nuclear weapons,
and because their
use would probably
guarantee
their
mutual destruction.
• After the war ended in 1945 both sides
distrusted the other. One had a vast army in
the field (the Soviet Union with its Red Army
supremely lead by Zhukov) while the other,
the Americans had the most powerful
weapon in the world, the A-bomb and the
Soviets had no way on knowing how many
America had.
CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR IN 1945
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
American fear of communist attack
Truman’s dislike of STALIN
Russia’s fear of the American's atomic bomb
Russia’s dislike of capitalism
Russia’s actions in the SOVIET ZONE OF GERMANY
America’s refusal to share nuclear secrets
Russia’s expansion west into Eastern Europe
Russia’s fear of American attack
Russia’s need for a secure western border
Russia’s aim of spreading world communism
COLD WAR CHRONOLOGY
• 1945 : �A’-Bomb dropped on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki. USA ahead in the arms race.
• 1947 : Marshall Aid to the west of Europe. Stalin
of USSR refused it for Eastern Europe.
• 1948 : start of the Berlin Blockade – ended 1949
• 1949 : NATO established; USSR exploded her first
�A’-bomb; China becomes communist
• 1950 : Korean War started.
• 1952 : USA exploded her first hydrogen bomb.
• 1953 : Korean War ended. USSR exploded her first hydrogen
bomb. Stalin died.
• 1955 : Warsaw Pact created. �Peaceful coexistence’called for.
• 1956 : Hungary revolts against USSR.
• 1957 : Sputnik launched.
• 1959 : Cuba becomes a communist state.
• 1961 : Military aid sent to Vietnam by USA for the first time.
Berlin Wall built.
• 1962 : Cuban Missile Crisis.
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