THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AMERICAN HISTORY 11TH GRADE Introduction вЂў The Russian Revolution of 1917 is also called the Bolshevik Revolution or the October Revolution. вЂў In 1917 there were actually TWO revolutions in Russia. 1. The February Revolution вЂў In which the Czar abdicated his throne and the Provisional Gvernment took power. 2. The October Revolution вЂў In which the Provisional Government was overthrown by the Bolsheviks. The Russian Revolution of 1917 played a very importan role in world history. February Revolution In 1917 Russia was again at war (WWI) and they were losing to the Germans mainly because they lacked the modern industry to support its war effort and didnвЂ™t have an adequate railroad system to get supplies to the front. As in 1905 when revolution broke out, confidence was not very high in the Czar Nicholas II. вЂў Becaue of the war Russia had the following problems: 1.-Food supplpies were low. 2.-Unemployment was high. 3.-And inflation was out of control. Because of these conditions many workers joined revolutionary organizations known as Soviets. вЂў This revolution appeared to break out spontaneously, without any real leadership or formal planning. вЂў The miserable conditions couples with 385,000 workers on strike in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) led to a combustible situation. вЂў It was the lack of bread that provdided the spark to the revolution. вЂў Bread rioters and industrial strikers were joined on the streets by disaffected soldiers. As more and more troops deserted, and with loyal troops at the Front, the city fell into chaos. вЂў On February 28, 1917 Nicholas II abdicated his thrones, czarist forces surrendered, and the CzarВґs ministers were arreseted. вЂў This would be the end of the last czarist regimes in Russia. вЂў Put in its place was the Provisional Government which consisted of a coalition of conservatives, moderate, and liberal socialists. вЂў One of the first they voted on was to free political prisoners. The October Revolution вЂў Also known as the Great October Socialist Revolution, Red October, or the Bolshevik Revolution. вЂў It was a political revolution, mass insurection and a part of the Russian Revolution of 1917. вЂў It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrogard on October 25, 1917. вЂў It followed the February Revolution of the same year. The October Revolution in Petrogard overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave power to the local soviets dominated by Bolsheviks. Bolsheviks вЂў Derives from the word bolВґshinstvo, вЂњmajorityвЂќ. The Bolsheviks came to power in Russia during the October Revolution, and founded the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic which would later in 1922 become the Soviet Union. вЂў The Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin, were by 1905 a mass organization consisting primarily of workers, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia. вЂў On July 8th 1917, Alexander Kerensky became the new leader of the Provisional Government. вЂў Kerensky was still the most popular man in the government because of his political past. However, Kerensky was unwilling to end the war. In fact, soon after taking office, he announced a new summer offensive. вЂў Soldiers on the front were upset at the news and regiments began to refuse to move to the front line. There was a rapid increase of men deserting the army. An estimated 2 million men had left the army. вЂў Some of these men returned home and used their weapons to seize land from the nobility. вЂў Kerensky and the Provisional Government issued warning but were powerless to stop the redistribution of land in the countryside. вЂў On July 19th, Kerensky gave orders for the arrest of leading Bolsheviks who were campaigning against the war. вЂў This included Vladimir Lenin and other men. вЂў People were urging to overthrow the Provisional Government. Lenin agreed and on the evening of October 24, 1917, orders were given for the Bolsheviks to take over. вЂў Power was handed over to the Soviet Council of PeopleвЂ™s Comissars. Vladimir Lenin was elected chairman and Joseph Stalin also recieved a position in the government. QUICK SUMMARY 1917 Russian Revolution вЂў The 1917 Russian Revolution was not, as many people suppose, one well organized event in which Czar Nicholas II was overthrown and Lenin and the Bolsheviks took power. вЂў It was a series of events that took place during 1917, which entailed two separate revolutions in February and October (with a great deal of political events in between), and which eventually plunged the country into Civil War before leading to the founding of the Communist State. вЂў The February Revolution (1917) On 23rd February 1917 the International Women's Day Festival in St. Petersburg turned into a city-wide demonstration, as exasperated women workers left factories to protest against food shortages. Men soon joined them, and on the following day - encouraged by political and social activists - the crowds had swelled and virtually every industry, shop and enterprise had ceased to function as almost the entire populace went on strike. Nicholas ordered the police and military to intervene, however the military was no longer loyal to the Czar and many mutinied or joined the people in demonstrations. Fights broke out and the whole city was in chaos. On October 28th over 80,000 troops mutinied from the army and looting and rioting was widespread. Faced with this untenable situation Czar Nicholas abdicated his throne. The October Revolution вЂў With Russian politics still in a state of constant flux, Lenin realized that now was the time to capitalize on his party's popularity. He planned a coup d'etat that would overthrow the increasingly ineffective Provisional Government and replace them with the Bolsheviks. вЂў October 24th was the date decided upon, and on that day troops loyal to the Bolsheviks took up crucial positions in the city. вЂў That day Kerensky fled the Palace by car, never to return to Russia. On the 26th the Palace was taken with barely a shot fired, and Lenin's October Revolution had been achieved with the bare minimum of drama or bloodshed. The Cold War American History Class IV Quarter Introduction вЂў Was a continuing state of political and military tension between the powers of the Western World, led by the United States, and the communist world, led by the Soviet Union. вЂў In other words, the Cold War is the name given to the RELATIONSHIP that developed primarily between the USA and USSR after WWII. вЂў The Cold War was to dominate International Affairs for decades and many major crisis occurred вЂ“ the CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS, VIETNAM, AND THE BERLIN WALL being just some.. For many the growth in weapons of mass destrution was the most worrying issue. вЂў This began after the success of their temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. SO WHY WERE THESE TWO SUPERPOWERS DISTRUSTFUL OF EACH OTHER? AMERICA SOVIET UNION Free elections No elections or fixed Democratic Autocratic/Dictatorshi p Capitalist Communist Richest world power Poor economic base Personal freedom Society controlled by the NKVD (secret police) Freedom of the media Total censorship вЂњSurvival of the fittestвЂќ Everybody helps everybody вЂў The Cold War was so named as it never featured direct military action, since both sides possessed nuclear weapons, and because their use would probably guarantee their mutual destruction. вЂў After the war ended in 1945 both sides distrusted the other. One had a vast army in the field (the Soviet Union with its Red Army supremely lead by Zhukov) while the other, the Americans had the most powerful weapon in the world, the A-bomb and the Soviets had no way on knowing how many America had. CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR IN 1945 вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў American fear of communist attack TrumanвЂ™s dislike of STALIN RussiaвЂ™s fear of the American's atomic bomb RussiaвЂ™s dislike of capitalism RussiaвЂ™s actions in the SOVIET ZONE OF GERMANY AmericaвЂ™s refusal to share nuclear secrets RussiaвЂ™s expansion west into Eastern Europe RussiaвЂ™s fear of American attack RussiaвЂ™s need for a secure western border RussiaвЂ™s aim of spreading world communism COLD WAR CHRONOLOGY вЂў 1945 : вЂ�AвЂ™-Bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. USA ahead in the arms race. вЂў 1947 : Marshall Aid to the west of Europe. Stalin of USSR refused it for Eastern Europe. вЂў 1948 : start of the Berlin Blockade вЂ“ ended 1949 вЂў 1949 : NATO established; USSR exploded her first вЂ�AвЂ™-bomb; China becomes communist вЂў 1950 : Korean War started. вЂў 1952 : USA exploded her first hydrogen bomb. вЂў 1953 : Korean War ended. USSR exploded her first hydrogen bomb. Stalin died. вЂў 1955 : Warsaw Pact created. вЂ�Peaceful coexistenceвЂ™called for. вЂў 1956 : Hungary revolts against USSR. вЂў 1957 : Sputnik launched. вЂў 1959 : Cuba becomes a communist state. вЂў 1961 : Military aid sent to Vietnam by USA for the first time. Berlin Wall built. вЂў 1962 : Cuban Missile Crisis.