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The October Revolution
Russia, 1917
The Rise of Russian Nationalism
What is nationalism?
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
The belief that people should be
loyal, mainly to their nation- that is,
to the people with whom they share
a culture and history- rather than to
a king of empire.
How might this be bad for the
czars? What might this lead to?
THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION: 1917
п‚Ў Due
to a lack of experienced
military leaders, Russia was not
prepared for WWI.
п‚Ў Poorly trained and equipped.
п‚Ў Will to fight had faded.
п‚Ў Czar Nicholas II relied on
military to stay in power.
People begin to turn on royal family…
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
Nicholas insisted on leading the army to
war even though he had no military
experience.
People become upset at military &
economic disasters in Russia.
Alexandra influenced by Grigori Rasputin
пЃ¬
Rasputin claimed to be a “Holy Man” and
influenced the king and queen
Rasputin
March towards Revolution….
п‚Ў
Conservatives kill Rasputin in 1916
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
п‚Ў
Fear that he has too much influence
Russian people view him negatively
This action does not save the monarchy
1917: Food rationing and bread
shortages
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Working women revolt and stage
strikes
Nicholas responds with violence
The czar’s response…
п‚Ў
Orders troops to break up
demonstrators with force.
пЃ¬
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
Many troops refuse and join the
protests
The Duma demands that Czar
Nicholas abdicate
Russians continue to fight in WWI
пЃ¬
Angers many people
п‚Ў
Government challenged by the Soviets.
п‚Ў Soviets
– councils representing
soldiers and workers. Most
were Socialists.
 Bolsheviks – small faction of
Marxist party led by V.I. Lenin.
п‚Ў Bolsheviks felt they had to
control the existing Soviets.
п‚Ў
They promised to end the war, give land
back to the peasants and transfer
government power to the Soviets.
Bolshevik Program
 “Peace,Land, Bread”
п‚Ў Worker Control of Production
п‚Ў ALL power to the Soviets.
п‚Ў
Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik
Revolution
October Revolution
п‚Ў Lenin
turns power to the
Soviets, but maintains
complete power by heading the
Council of People’s
Commissars.
п‚Ў Bolsheviks re-name themselves
the Communists.
CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE
RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONS, 1917
Causes:
Czarist Russia
Effects/Causes:
March Revolution
Czar’s
leadership
was weak
Revolutionary
agitation
challenges the
government.
Widespread
discontent found
among all
classes.
Czar
abdicates
Provisional
government
takes over.
Lenin and
Bolsheviks gain
power.
Russia stays in
WWI.
Effects:
Bolshevik Revolution
Provisional
government
is overthrown
Bolsheviks
take over.
Bolsheviks sign
peace treaty
with Germany.
Civil war begins.
Civil War
п‚Ў
Red Army vs. White Army
пЃ¬
п‚Ў
1920- Red Army in control
Royal family captured
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Moved to a mining town
Eventually all are killed. Or are they?
Control people by TERROR.
п‚Ў Secret
Police – Cheka
п‚Ў Opposed to Communists,
they would come calling.
п‚Ў Allies send troops to
oppose Communists.
Communists appeal to
patriotism to fight.
Fight for Power
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
1924- Lenin dies
Power struggle begins
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Stalin v. Trotsky
Stalin: General Secretary
Appointed many to key positions
п‚Ў Their support= head of the Communist
party
п‚Ў
пЃ¬
Trotsky: Brilliant commissioner of the
Civil War; helped the Communists to
win
Stalin’s Five Year Plan
п‚Ў
Sets economic goals for 5 years
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Plan takes its toll on the Russian
people.
Government uses propaganda to boost
morale.
Collectivization: Government takes
farms and peasants work on them
Stalin’s Reign
Russia under Stalin
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
1930s: millions starve to death due
to food shortages
Those who resisted or spoke out
against Stalin were sent to labor
camps in Siberia
Stalin overturns women’s rights
gained in the 1920s
Under Stalin, the government
prospers, but the people do not
пЃ¬
An estimated 20-30 million die
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