Tuesday 1/21/14 RAP пЃ®Why did you have yesterday off from school? пЃ®Why do we observe this in history? Today: пЃ®Close reading and comparison of the Declaration of Independence and Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. пЃ®Revolutions encouraged by the above. пЃ® Close reading and comparison of the Declaration of Independence and Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. (TITLE your notes ) вЂ“ As we read I want you and your partner to pull out information from each reading that are similar and different. вЂ“ What differences did you write down? вЂ“ What similarities did you write down? Comparative Revolutions: Haitian, American, French, Mexican, Chinese, and Latin American Independence Movements 1750-1914 **Global Connection пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Revolutions spurred on movements in other countries Introduced new political ideas (democracy, constitutions, etc.) used world wide In the case of Haitian Revolution, inspired other slave rebellions Gave power to commoners/slaves; knew they could overthrow government American Revolution led to independence movements in other colonies escaping from European control Prelude to the American Revolution пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Laws passed by the English government to limit expansion as well as pass laws on the American colonies American colonies looking for more independence Artisans and farmers looking for ways to promote social equality American Revolution пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Battle of Bunker Hill On June 15, 1775, the Continental Congress appoints George Washington general of Continental Army On June 17, 1775, the Battle of Bunker Hill occurs with the British winning, but at a huge cost In December of 1775, the American colonies are placed under an embargo May 2, 1776, France commits 1 million dollars in arms to the colonies and Spain also offers support American Revolution пЃ® п‚§ пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® **On July 4, 1776 the Declaration of Independence is issued October 7, 1777- Battle of Saratoga results in 1st major American victory Articles of Confederation adopted on November 15, 1777 making Congress the sole authority 1781- last battle at YorktownвЂ”Britain defeated. 1783-Paris Peace agreement between American colonists and GB In 1789, the U.S. sets up a new constitutional structure with checks and balances between the different branches of government as well as limited voting rights (to wealthy white males) Above - The signing of the Declaration. Haitian Revolution пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Began on August 22, 1781 Slave uprising against the French Francois Dominique Toussaint LвЂ™Ouverture organized a small military group In order to overcome powerful countries wanting to claim Haiti (France, England, and Spanish) Toussiant played powers off of one another, finally allying with French Toussaint LвЂ™Ouverture Haitian Revolution пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® NapoleonвЂ™s rule resulted in ToussiantвЂ™s death Jean-Jacques Dessalines was former slave who took over General Leclerc sent by Napoleon to deal with Haitians, bloody battles occurred Ended on November 28, 1803 Legacy of Haitian Revolution пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Symbol of freedom and hope to the rest of slaves in North America Slave owners became aware of chance of rebellion of slaves Slave shelters built by slave owners in case of an uprising Beginnings of the Mexican Revolution General Porfirio Diaz was president of Mexico from 1876-1911 пЃ® Mexico had political and economic stability, but at expense of farmers and laborers (only select few had wealth) пЃ® Suppressed any uprisings with army пЃ® Claimed that he was waiting until Mexico was ready for a democracy пЃ® Mexican Revolution пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® In 1909, Francisco Madero formed Anti-Reelectionist Party, trying to oust General Diaz and form a democracy; ran for president in 1910 Madero imprisoned for вЂњinciting rebellionвЂќ and Diaz won election Madero won election in 1911, but found most revolutionaries wanted immediate change which he couldnвЂ™t provide Mexican Revolution пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Madero killed in 1913, and replaced by Victoriano Huerta Huerta didnвЂ™t stay true to revolutionary beliefs, left country in 1914 Huerta replaced by Venustiano Carranza who organized a convention that resulted in the formation of a new constitution in 1917 Chinese Revolution пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Revolution began in 1890s with fall of ChвЂ™ing (Qing) dynasty After Boxer Rebellion in 1900, Western ideas dominated education and much of Chinese life 1911 Revolution began in southwestern province of Szechwan Motivated by plan to nationalize the railway Chinese Revolution пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Sun Yat-sen was вЂњFather of the RevolutionвЂќ Educated in west, saw revolution as nationalist, social, and democratic revolution In 1905, Chinese United League formed By end of November of 1911, 2/3 of China had seceded from the ChвЂ™ing empire In December 1911, China proclaimed a republic with Sun Yat-sen as president Chinese Revolution пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Yuan Shih-kai had been appointed as prime minister in 1911 On January 3, 1912, Yuan claimed he would get the ChвЂ™ing dynasty to abdicate if he was offered the presidency Yuan appointed president on February 1, 1912 Yuan suppressed any rebellions, dissolving the parliament and becoming dictator in 1914 President Yuan Shikai Latin American Independence Movements (Brazil) пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® By end of 18th century, Brazil had grown in economic importance 1807, France invaded Portugal; Portuguese king moved to Brazil; Rio de Janeiro made capital Dom Joao VI moved back to Portugal in 1820, but son Dom Pedro I, stayed behind Pedro was called back to Portugal, but, after refusing,** declared Brazil independent in 1822 Latin American Independence Movements (Peru) пЃ® п‚§ пЃ® пЃ® Jose San Martin was military commander in Argentina who wanted to secure Peruvian silver Peru still under Spanish control, upper class extremely conservative; but Napoleonic invasions of Spain sparked revolution San Martin was unable to defeat Spanish in interior, and with his withdrawal, Simon Bolivar took over Battles in 1824 such as battle of Ayacucho assured PeruвЂ™s independence Latin American Independence Movements (Chile) пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Young Anti-War Protest пЃ® In September 1810, open town meeting appointed junta made up of local leaders to rule (searching for more independence) Battle of Rancagua in October 1814, Spain regained control Carrera brothers and Bernard OвЂ™Higgins convinced Jose San Martin to help them **Independence proclaimed in 1818 with OвЂ™Higgins as dictator **Causes/Motives of the Revolutions пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® All revolutions resulted from peasant unrest Industrialization and economic hardships (food shortages) Nationalist ideas helped to spur on all revolutions Media played major role in advocating change; monarchs could publish newspapers supporting their actions, controlling the publicвЂ™s knowledge, revolutionaries could also use media to support their beliefs of overthrowing the government Need to industrialize nations Artisans or peasants who wanted older economic values **Causes/Motives of the Revolutions continued пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Enlightenment thinkers challenged regimes that didnвЂ™t grant religious freedoms or insisted on aristocratic privilege Commercialization caused merchants to challenge idea that aristocrats hold highest power Population increase made it harder for anyone not aristocrat to gain office; led to protesting Comparison of Causes and Motivations of Revolutions Haiti Slaves wanted vengeance п‚§ Slaves retained culture, wanted to reinstate it п‚§ Planters wanted independence from France п‚§Free people of color wanted citizenship п‚§ Slaves wanted freedom (under cruel conditions) п‚§ Haitians received little profit from plantations (French got it all) п‚§ Mexico China France America Latin America п‚§ п‚§ Increasing п‚§ Large п‚§ Resisted п‚§ internal disorders п‚§Pressure from foreign governments п‚§Weakness of central government (under Manchus) п‚§Imperial plan to nationalize the railway (wealthy gentry stood to lose investments) п‚§Urban intellectuals advocated westernization п‚§ Military wanted freedom population as disease, food shortages& mortality declined п‚§Capitalism introduced, economy grew п‚§In lean years, 90% of peasantry lived at or below subsistence level п‚§ Kings competed with officers for authority; kings wanted monarchy п‚§ King had been involved in religious controversies Britain's attempts to impose taxes and trade controls on colonies п‚§ Overpopulation led young men to seek new opportunities п‚§ Growing commerce led to farmers and artisans looking for ways to defend social equality and community spirit п‚§ Stamp Act of 1765 on all documents and pamphlets Only select few were wealthy and educated; expense came to laborers п‚§ People wanted representation (were politically repressed) п‚§Maldistribution of land (Expansion of large landed estates) п‚§ Conflict with foreign powers (Ex: U.S.) and influx of foreign capital п‚§ Mistreatment of American Indians Conflict and invasion in mother country (Legitimacy of rulers) п‚§ Restrictions on education and trade п‚§ Conflict between political values (liberals and conservatives) п‚§ American, French, and Haitian Revolutions п‚§ Resented taxation and policies of mother countries **Effects of Revolutions on Women continued Before Revolutions After Revolutions п‚§ Women expected to be wives and п‚§ Women allowed to be educated: at first mothers; could not vote or hold political office п‚§ Unmarried women under authority of their fathers п‚§ Once married, couldn't work, enter into contracts, or control own estates without husbandвЂ™s permission п‚§ Enlightenment ideas enforced beliefs that women biologically and socially different from men and should stick to domestic tasks п‚§ Women secluded within homes; had to wear long skirts or dresses п‚§ Lower class women had more freedom than those of upper class the sole purpose was to train them for вЂњenlightenedвЂќ role within the home п‚§ Demand for teachers allowed for higher education; women became more confident and advocated womenвЂ™s rights п‚§ As 20th century progressed, women gained right to vote in addition to other civil liberties (Ex: raised hemline of dresses) п‚§ When men went off to war, left openings in factory positions which were filled by women (proved themselves able to work in even heavy industry, including munitions) **Rise of Democracy пЃ® п‚§ In Mexican Revolution, new constitution formed in 1917 that: - Redistributed land from wealthy landowners to peasants - was 1st to recognize collective labor rights - limited the foreign ownership of key resources Haitian Revolution, gave more equality to people of color and gained independence from France - Inspired other countries to form own democracy - Early constitutions balanced popular representation by imposing property restrictions of voters Rise of Democracy п‚§ **French Revolution: - Assembly published Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen on August 26, 1789 - Assembly became legislature of new government (parliament) - Constitution proclaimed individual rights Rise of Democracy пЃ® **Chinese Revolution: - Constitution formed limited emperorвЂ™s power; said that parliamentary elections be held within 6 months of formation of government - Provincial assemblies were established in 1909 - National, democratically elected Consultative Assembly formed in 1910 Rise of Democracy пЃ® п‚§ **American Revolution: - May 10, 1776, Congress allows each of colonies to form local governments - July 4, 1776, Declaration of Independence - U.S. Constitution set up in 1789 with checks and balances between different branches, guarantees of individual liberties, and limited voting rights **Latin America - Local leaders were taking positions of greater importance -- Freedom of trade was reached both within the nations and internationally **Negative Effects of the Revolutions пЃ® п‚§ Mexican Revolution - Devastated the country - Killed 1.5 million people - Ranching and farming were disrupted French Revolution- Radical phase resulted in deaths of opponents of revolution aided by guillotine - Incited further war, especially under Napoleon, in other countries - Destruction of property Destroyed Buildings **Negative Effects of the Revolution continued пЃ® п‚§ Haitian Revolution - Africans seen by General Leclerc (invading French officer) immediately killed - Instilled fear among slave owners, tighter restriction on slave rights (slaves couldnвЂ™t be taught to read) American Revolution - Deaths of about 7,000 Americans - New government deeply in debt, had to pay soldierвЂ™s salaries in addition to cost of food and weapons пЃ® п‚§ Chinese Revolution - Reforms didnвЂ™t benefit the peasants; benefited military, and aristocrats - DidnвЂ™t provide ample opposition against the warlords - Reforms made were not social, mainly political Latin America - Did not receive full independence; still dependent European and U.S. economics Bibliography пЃ® п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ Modern China: The 1911 Revolution by Richard Hooker; copyright 1996 http:www.wsu.edur.8080/~dee/MODCHINA/REV.HTM Map-the Chinese Revolution by Matthew White; copyright 1997 http:users.erols.com/mwhite28/chin-rev.htm Chinese Revolution; copyright Tiscali 2004 http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutcinson/m005603.html Nationalist Party of China http://encylopedia.thefreedictionary.comNationalist%20Party%20of%20 China The Haitian Revolution by Joanne Spadaro of School of Information Science and Policy at University of Albany, SUNY. http://www.albany.edu/~js3980/haitian-revolution.html The Haitian Revolution by Richard Hooker; copyright 1996 http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/DIASPORTA/HAITI.HTM Bibliography continued пЃ® п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ Equality of Opportunity (Image) www.edci.purdue.edu/вЂ¦/summer_institute.html The World Book Encyclopedia Set World Book, Inc. in Chicago. Copyright 2004 The Mexican Revolution of 1910; updated April 2004 http://www.mexonline.com/revolution.htm November 20: Commemoration of the Mexican Revolution; copyright 1999-2004 http://www.inside-mexico.com/revolucion.htm Mexican Revolution by Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_Revolution Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution A Collaboration of Center for History and New Media and American Social History Project http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/# Bibliography continued пЃ® п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ French Revolution by Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolution The History Place http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/revolution/ Legislature.gif (image) www.ils.unc.edu/daniel/BOTNET/legislature.gif The Mexican Revolution: The Overthrow of Diaz and The Madero Regime 19101920; by Matthew White; last updated August 2000 users.erols.com-mwhite28/mexico.htm Haiti; wuarchive.wustl.edu/~aminet/pix/map/Haiti.jpg HaitiвЂ™s Long March Toward Freedom by J. Damu of the San Franciso Bay View; December 2003 kwsnet.com/weblog/2004/01/03.html The Struggle of Haitian workers- their alliance with Steelworkers Local by Steve Gillis. Boston, October 14, 1991 www.iacenter.org/haiti/boston-bus.htm Bibliography continued пЃ® п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ The Phases of the French Revolution. October 20, 2004 http://www.historyhome.co.uk Louis XVI by Brooklyn College History Department. Copyright 1997 academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/вЂ¦/0253/img0035.htm Modern History Sourcebook: Radical Women during the English Revolution http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17women.html A Discourse Upon the Origin and the Foundation of the Inequality Among Mankind by Jean Jacques Rousseau http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1782rousseau-inequal.html A Declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress Assembled. Copyright 1998 http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/jefferson-autobio.html Image-government.jpg lawweb.usc.edu/вЂ¦/pages/hoffman-profile.html Bibliography continued пЃ® п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ The History Carper. Copyright 2000, Third millennium Publishing 3mpub.com/carper The American Revolution. Copyright 2000 by Addison-Wesley Education Publishers Inc. www.loyno.edu/~seduffy/maps.html Revolutions effect on the role of women in China and Russia (2004) http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/index.htm Creativity and Ancient China www.china.org.cn/english/NTW/200333.htm http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/sierra/sanmartin1814.htm Brazil in South America www.natal-brazil.com/maps/ Peru-flag www.truthinmedia.org/вЂ¦/tim2000-8-10.html Bibliography continued пЃ® пЃ® п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ п‚§ www.betabodega.com/вЂ¦/photogallery.php Racism, History, and Lies www.suppressedhistories.net/catalog/intl2.html Women Protesting Labor visualhistory.freewebpages.org/TurnofCentury.html Battle of Ayacucho; Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia. Copyright 1993-1995; Funk & Wagnalls Corporation Microsoft Clip Art Gallery World Civilizations: The Global Experience 4th edition By: Peter N. Stearns, Michael Adas, Stuart B. Schwartz, and Marc Jason Gilbert. Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.