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What was the impact of World War II? PowerPoint presentation 1

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Who was involved in rebuilding our local
area after WWII?
Lesson 3, Presentation
Supported by:
Developed in partnership with:
1
Design for a development of multi-storey buildings surrounding St Paul's Cathedral,
City of London, 1946
В© Royal Institute of British Architects
•
Even before the war had finished, architects and planners had new ideas to
rebuild Britain’s bomb-damaged cities.
•
Across Britain reconstruction started immediately, but was made difficult by
the shortage of materials and labour in the years after peace had been
declared.
•
The post-war period saw new kinds of housing being built to satisfy the
demand for homes and to accommodate the new ideas architects and
planners had to improve the way British people lived.
2
Shoreditch
Aerial view of a site in Shoreditch, London,
1944
В© Royal Institute of British Architects
This aerial view of Shoreditch
shows the bomb damage (red)
and overcrowded slums (black). It
appeared in a booklet by architect
Ernö Goldfinger.
In his booklet Goldfinger
proposed a blueprint for the
rebuilding of this heavily bombed
part of London. It was intended to
conform to the bigger plan for
London, the County of London
Plan.
3
Shoreditch
Site plan showing a completed proposed
housing development to be built on land
bombed during World War II, Shoreditch,
London, 1944
В© Royal Institute of British Architects
This view shows the same area
but with totally new
developments. The proposal
included space for schools, a
nursery, college, new roads, car
parks and garages.
4
Design for a new London, drawing by Stephen
Rowland Pierce, 1942
В© Royal Institute of British Architects
London for much of its history
developed without a master plan.
Even after the Great Fire of
London in 1666, grand rebuilding
plans were not realised.
Question 1: Imagine it is 1945
and the war is over, do you think
London needs a plan for future
reconstruction?
5
Architects
Architects Alison and Peter Smithson are
pictured in front of a school they designed,
1954
В© Royal Institute of British Architects
Post-war reconstruction
involved many skilled
professionals, these included:
• architects
• planners
• engineers
• builders
• government officials
6
Robin Hood Gardens
Robin Hood Gardens under construction,
Tower Hamlets, London, 1972
В© Royal Institute of British Architects
The Smithsons were two of
the many architects that
designed new homes after the
war.
Among the most famous postwar housing schemes is Robin
Hood Garden, a council
housing estate covering five
acres in the East End of
London.
7
Robin Hood Gardens
Robin Hood Gardens, Tower Hamlets,
London: the garden facade of the tenstorey slab block, 1972
В© Royal Institute of British Architects
The Smithsons wanted to
create modern housing that
recreated the community feel
and neighbourliness of older
housing types.
Robin Hood Gardens consists
of two long blocks, one of ten
storeys, the other of seven,
built from precast concrete
slabs.
Question 2: How is this type
of housing different from the
ones before WWII?
8
Planners
Plan showing the Greater London Plan's
four zonal 'rings�, 1945
В© Royal Institute of British Architects
Sir Patrick Abercrombie was a
planner who created a
blueprint for London’s postwar reconstruction, in the
County of London Plan (1943)
and the Greater London Plan.
This called for more green
space and the creation of New
Towns outside London to
prevent overcrowding.
Question 3: What pattern can
you observe?
9
Officials
Mayor at the opening of Sandringham
Road Housing Scheme, Hackney, 1948
Hackney Archives
Ref. P 2518
The opening of new housing
estates were often celebrated
events, especially if they were
planned and built by local
councils or the government.
Such events attracted the
news media and public, and
were opened by officials such
as mayors, MPs or even
royalty
Question 4: Imagine you
were invited to open a new
council estate in your local
area. What speech would you
write?
10
Mapledene Road
Mapledene Road, housing site: Apprentice Master’s Scheme, 1950, showing driveway
Hackney Archives
Ref. P2289
11
Mapledene Road
Mapledene Road, housing site: Apprentice Master’s Scheme, 1950, showing workmen laying
foundations
Hackney Archives
Ref. P2288
12
Mapledene Road
Mapledene Road – north side from no. 53 looking east to Lansdowne Drive, 1912
Hackney Archives
P14250-13
13
Denys Lasdun
Exterior: 32 Newton Road, Paddington,
London. The road façade
В© Royal institute of British Architects
32 Newton Road is a private
house designed by Sir Denys
Lasdun and built just before
WWII in 1938. It is located in
an area of mainly large
Victorian houses.
Question 5: From the outside
how would this building
contrasted with its Victorian
neighbours? What reaction do
you think neighbours would
have had?
14
Denys Lasdun
Interior: 32 Newton Road, Paddington, London. В© Royal institute of British Architects
15
Denys Lasdun
Plans: 32 Newton Road, Paddington,
London. The ground and first floor plan
В© Royal institute of British Architects
The plan shows that this
house had It had rooms for
servants, fitted kitchen, and a
study.
There are four floors in total,
the other floors have a studio,
separate bedrooms, and a
sun terrace.
Question 6: Draw a plan of
your own home. Include
details like the position of
furniture and fittings.
16
Mapledene Estate - Plan
Site plan of Mapledene Estate, 1948
Hackney Archives, Ref. H/EP/28
17
Ground floor plan
Site plan of Mapledene Estate, 1948, Hackney Archives, Ref. H/EP/28
The ground floor plan of one terraced house in the Mapledene Estate.
It shows the details of the kitchen (in red), living room and parlour.
18
Kitchen plan
Site plan of Mapledene Estate, 1948, Hackney Archives, Ref. H/EP/28
A plan of the kitchen, showing all the latest modern conveniences to
be installed in the homes of the Mapledene Estate.
19
Section of kitchen
Site plan of Mapledene Estate, 1948, Hackney Archives, Ref. H/EP/28
A plan of the kitchen, showing all the latest modern conveniences to
be installed in the homes of the Mapledene Estate.
20
Section of house
Cross-section
Mapledene Estate, 1948
Hackney Archives, Ref. H/EP/28
A section of the same house,
showing the kitchen (red),
bedrooms and living room.
Question 7: Draw a section of
your home. Include furniture
and fittings.
21
Elevation of house
Elevation
Mapledene Estate, 1948
Hackney Archives, Ref. H/EP/28
An elevation of the same
house
22
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