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The History of London

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The South of England
• In 55 BC, Julius Ceasar’s Roman army invaded
England and landed in Kent and marched northwest until it reached the river Thames.
Londonium- the settlement in the
1st century
• There was a second invasion 88 years later and
the Romans bridged the river and built their
administrative headquarters on the north bank,
calling it Londonium
Medieval London
• The historic division
between London’s centres
of commerce (the City) and
goverment (Westminster)
started in the 11th century.
• Edward the confessor
became the king and
established his court and
sited his abbey at
Westminster.
• In 1348 Black Death kills
thousands of people
• Geoffrey Chaucer’s
Canterbury Tales creates a
rich picture of 14th century
England
William the Conqueror
• William the Conqueror
landed with his army at
Hastings. His claim to the
English throne was based
on a promise made by
Edward the Confessor.
During his reign he united
England,
introduced
French language, and
feudal
system
nd
recorded the wealth and
properties of important
estate owners in th
Doomsday Book.
King John I.(1199-1216)
• John I. was
forced by the
barons to sign
Magna Carta, a
document which
limited the royal
power.
Edward I. known as �Longshanks’
• He was a man of
enormous energy. He
invaded Wales and
defeated the Scottish.
His only setback was
a defeat by William
Wallace at Stirling but
he took revenge and
Wallace was hanged
and quartered.
• Edward I. removed the
Stone of Scone to
Westminster, on which
traditionally
Scottish
kings had always been
crowned.
Elizabethan London
• In the 16th century the monarchy was
stronger than ever before. The Tudors
established peace throughout England. Art
and commerce flourished.
Henry VIII.(1509-1547)
• During his reign England
broke with the power of
Roman Papacy.
• England became a rival
of the European powers
headed by the Emperor
Charles V. and Francis I.
of France.
• He laid the foundations
for the golden age of
Elizabeth I.
• He showed off his power
by building new palaces.
Henry the VIII. and his 6 wives
• He beheaded 2 of his 6
wives
• He had 3 children, all of
them from a different
mother. All of them got
the throne. First, Edward
VI, the king’s only son,
who died very early of
disease, then Mary I.
became the queen, who
was known as Bloody
Mary
because
she
executed those who were
nor Roman Catholic.
The Virgin Queen
(1558-1603)
• Then
after
her
prisonment in tower,
at the death of her
elder sister Queen
Mary I., Elizabeth
became the Queen
who ruled England for
45 years and was
called
the
Virgin
Queen as she never
got married.
Restorian London
• In 1642 Civil War broke
out and Parliament took
power, the king Charles I.
was beheaded.
• 1660 Monarchy restored
under Charles II.
• Plague kills 100.000
people in 1665
• In 1666 in the Great Fire
London was in flames for
5 days
• Sir Christofer Wren the
architect helped to
restore London
the Great Fire
• The settlement was surrrounded by a wall and after the
Great Fire of London in 1666 the post-Fire rebuilding
formed the basis of the area we know today as the City.
The fire destroyed large areas of crowded streets and
unhealthy dwellings.
• In the 18th century, London enveloped the
settlements around it. These included the royal
city of Westminster, which had long been
London’s religious and political centre.
Georgian London
• London became an
important financial
and commercial
centre when George I
came to the throne in
1714.
• Lots of famous
architects like John
Nash or the Adam
brothers designed lots
of buildings.
Victorian London- much of today’s
London is Victorian
• The explosive growth of
commerce and industry
during the 18th and 19th
century made London the
biggest and wealthiest
city in the world.
• Nearly 14,000 exhibitors
came from all over the
world to the Great
Exibition in 1851, which
was held in the Crystal
Palace in Hyde Park.
London between the World Wars
• The innovations of the 20th century were
available for the people: motor car,
telephone, cinema, radio
Postwar London
• Much of London was flattened by World War II. bombs.
• By the 1960s, London was a dynamac world leader in
fashion and popular music
• Modern skyscrapers emerged among the historic
buildings
And what attracts most tourists in
London?
The Tower
• The oldest historical building
in London. It was built in the
11th centurs, which used to
be a fortress. Kings and
Queens slept here before
their coronations in
Westminster Abbey.
• Visitors can see the Crown
Jewels here today.
Westminster Abbey
• Since 1066 all the
kings and queens
have been crowned
and most of them
have been buried
here in a place called
Poets’ Corner as this
is the resting place for
many of the famous
poets and writers as
well.
The Coronation Chair
• The Coronation chair is made of
wood. On this chair British kings
and queens have been crowned
for almost a thousand years.
Under it was the Stone of Scone,
which was stolen from Scotland
and later stolen back by the
Scottish. British people can get it
back only for coronations
Buckingham Palace
• This beautiful building has given home to
kings and queens for centuries. It has a
nice garden too.
Changing of the guards
• There are guards
near the gate, called
beefeaters, who wear
bearskin hats.
Holidaymakers can
see the parade at
10.30 every morning.
London Eye or Millenium Wheel
• The London Eye is a giant 135m tall wheel
situated on the bank of the River Thames.
It was built in 1999 and became the most
popular paid tourist attraction in the UK
visited by 3,5 million people annually.
• About 25 people can get into one of the 32
capsules and a ride takes 30 minutes.
From the top there is a breathtaking view
of the city.
Museums and Galleries
• London is the city of museums and
galleries. The works of such famous artists
as Michelangelo, Van Gogh, Monet,
Picasso are exhibited in the National
Gallery.
Hyde Park
• It is probably the best known of the 5 huge parks in the
centre of London, where Londoners can lie down on the
lawn, go jogging, ride a horse or a bike, enjoy the
concerts or can listen to a speaker at the Speakers’
Corner.
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