The South of England вЂў In 55 BC, Julius CeasarвЂ™s Roman army invaded England and landed in Kent and marched northwest until it reached the river Thames. Londonium- the settlement in the 1st century вЂў There was a second invasion 88 years later and the Romans bridged the river and built their administrative headquarters on the north bank, calling it Londonium Medieval London вЂў The historic division between LondonвЂ™s centres of commerce (the City) and goverment (Westminster) started in the 11th century. вЂў Edward the confessor became the king and established his court and sited his abbey at Westminster. вЂў In 1348 Black Death kills thousands of people вЂў Geoffrey ChaucerвЂ™s Canterbury Tales creates a rich picture of 14th century England William the Conqueror вЂў William the Conqueror landed with his army at Hastings. His claim to the English throne was based on a promise made by Edward the Confessor. During his reign he united England, introduced French language, and feudal system nd recorded the wealth and properties of important estate owners in th Doomsday Book. King John I.(1199-1216) вЂў John I. was forced by the barons to sign Magna Carta, a document which limited the royal power. Edward I. known as вЂ�LongshanksвЂ™ вЂў He was a man of enormous energy. He invaded Wales and defeated the Scottish. His only setback was a defeat by William Wallace at Stirling but he took revenge and Wallace was hanged and quartered. вЂў Edward I. removed the Stone of Scone to Westminster, on which traditionally Scottish kings had always been crowned. Elizabethan London вЂў In the 16th century the monarchy was stronger than ever before. The Tudors established peace throughout England. Art and commerce flourished. Henry VIII.(1509-1547) вЂў During his reign England broke with the power of Roman Papacy. вЂў England became a rival of the European powers headed by the Emperor Charles V. and Francis I. of France. вЂў He laid the foundations for the golden age of Elizabeth I. вЂў He showed off his power by building new palaces. Henry the VIII. and his 6 wives вЂў He beheaded 2 of his 6 wives вЂў He had 3 children, all of them from a different mother. All of them got the throne. First, Edward VI, the kingвЂ™s only son, who died very early of disease, then Mary I. became the queen, who was known as Bloody Mary because she executed those who were nor Roman Catholic. The Virgin Queen (1558-1603) вЂў Then after her prisonment in tower, at the death of her elder sister Queen Mary I., Elizabeth became the Queen who ruled England for 45 years and was called the Virgin Queen as she never got married. Restorian London вЂў In 1642 Civil War broke out and Parliament took power, the king Charles I. was beheaded. вЂў 1660 Monarchy restored under Charles II. вЂў Plague kills 100.000 people in 1665 вЂў In 1666 in the Great Fire London was in flames for 5 days вЂў Sir Christofer Wren the architect helped to restore London the Great Fire вЂў The settlement was surrrounded by a wall and after the Great Fire of London in 1666 the post-Fire rebuilding formed the basis of the area we know today as the City. The fire destroyed large areas of crowded streets and unhealthy dwellings. вЂў In the 18th century, London enveloped the settlements around it. These included the royal city of Westminster, which had long been LondonвЂ™s religious and political centre. Georgian London вЂў London became an important financial and commercial centre when George I came to the throne in 1714. вЂў Lots of famous architects like John Nash or the Adam brothers designed lots of buildings. Victorian London- much of todayвЂ™s London is Victorian вЂў The explosive growth of commerce and industry during the 18th and 19th century made London the biggest and wealthiest city in the world. вЂў Nearly 14,000 exhibitors came from all over the world to the Great Exibition in 1851, which was held in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park. London between the World Wars вЂў The innovations of the 20th century were available for the people: motor car, telephone, cinema, radio Postwar London вЂў Much of London was flattened by World War II. bombs. вЂў By the 1960s, London was a dynamac world leader in fashion and popular music вЂў Modern skyscrapers emerged among the historic buildings And what attracts most tourists in London? The Tower вЂў The oldest historical building in London. It was built in the 11th centurs, which used to be a fortress. Kings and Queens slept here before their coronations in Westminster Abbey. вЂў Visitors can see the Crown Jewels here today. Westminster Abbey вЂў Since 1066 all the kings and queens have been crowned and most of them have been buried here in a place called PoetsвЂ™ Corner as this is the resting place for many of the famous poets and writers as well. The Coronation Chair вЂў The Coronation chair is made of wood. On this chair British kings and queens have been crowned for almost a thousand years. Under it was the Stone of Scone, which was stolen from Scotland and later stolen back by the Scottish. British people can get it back only for coronations Buckingham Palace вЂў This beautiful building has given home to kings and queens for centuries. It has a nice garden too. Changing of the guards вЂў There are guards near the gate, called beefeaters, who wear bearskin hats. Holidaymakers can see the parade at 10.30 every morning. London Eye or Millenium Wheel вЂў The London Eye is a giant 135m tall wheel situated on the bank of the River Thames. It was built in 1999 and became the most popular paid tourist attraction in the UK visited by 3,5 million people annually. вЂў About 25 people can get into one of the 32 capsules and a ride takes 30 minutes. From the top there is a breathtaking view of the city. Museums and Galleries вЂў London is the city of museums and galleries. The works of such famous artists as Michelangelo, Van Gogh, Monet, Picasso are exhibited in the National Gallery. Hyde Park вЂў It is probably the best known of the 5 huge parks in the centre of London, where Londoners can lie down on the lawn, go jogging, ride a horse or a bike, enjoy the concerts or can listen to a speaker at the SpeakersвЂ™ Corner.