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1
Stops and Searches
Monitoring Mechanism
training
2
Today’s session…
• Data available
• Finding the Stops & Searches Monitoring
Mechanism
• Glossary of key terms
• Calculations
• Reading and interpreting the data
• Further sources of information
3
What data is available?
Stops and Searches Monitoring Mechanism
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Volume of stops and searches and stops and accounts
Stops and searches by reason
Arrest rates from searches
Ethnic appearance of people stopped, searched and arrested
Ethnic appearance of people searched as a disproportionality
ratio
Self defined ethnicity of people stopped and held to account as a
disproportionality ratio
Searches by age group
Arrest reason compared to search reason
% arrest rate, % weapons searches, % key crime searches
By borough (32 x individual borough reports) and force
Updated monthly
Other data…
•
•
A 5090 form dip sample summary (stops
reason for stops and outcomes)
Multiple stops on a person
and searches with
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Where the data is collected – a 5090
form
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Finding the Stops & Searches Monitoring
Mechanism
Type the following address into the address bar on your internet
browser
www.met.police.uk/foi/units/stop_and_search.htm
• Stops and Searches Monitoring
Mechanism
• Force level report
• Most recent and previous month
report
• Stops and Searches Monitoring
Mechanism
• 32 x individual borough level
reports
• Most recent month and previous
month report
6
Finding the Stops & Searches Monitoring
Mechanism
• Stop and Search Borough Equality
Impact Assessment
• 32 x individual borough level
reports
MPS policies and procedures
including:
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General S&S supervisor checklist
5090 supervisor checklist
Borough SLT lead checklist
Frontline checklist
Flowcharts
Q&A
Various documents detailing
Section 60 authorisation process
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Month that data reports to
Date that data was
extracted
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Glossary of terms
• Stop and Account – Where an officer requests a person in
a public place to account for their actions, their behaviour,
their presence in an area or their possession of anything.
• Stop and Search – When a police officer stops a member of
the public and searches them. The police can only detain
members of the public in order to carry out a search when
certain conditions have been met. Search powers fall under
different areas of legislation which include searching for:
stolen property, prohibited articles (offensive weapons,
anything used for burglary, theft deception or criminal
damage), drugs or guns.
• Historically, searches of unattended vehicles and vessels
have made up a very low proportion of search activity.
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Glossary of terms
•
Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) - provides the core
framework of police powers and safeguards around stop and search,
arrest, detention, investigation, identification and interviewing detainees.
It sets out to strike the right balance between the powers of the police
and the rights and freedoms of the public. Maintaining that balance is a
key element of PACE. Section 1 sets out the power of a constable to
stop and search persons, vehicles etc.
•
PACE sets
including:
пѓ�
The primary purpose of stop and search powers is to enable officers to allay or
confirm suspicions about individuals without exercising their power of arrest.
An officer must not search a person, even with his or her consent, where no power
to search is applicable.
Reasonable grounds for suspicion depend on the circumstances in each case.
There must be an objective basis for that suspicion based on facts, information,
and/or intelligence which are relevant to the likelihood of finding an article of a
certain kind. Reasonable suspicion can never be supported on the basis of
personal factors, generalisations or stereotypical images.
пѓ�
пѓ�
out the
various
principles
governing
stop
and
search
10
Glossary of terms
•
Section 60 Criminal Justice & Public Order Act 1994 (s60) –
where an authorising officer reasonably believes that serious
violence may take place or that persons are carrying dangerous
instruments or offensive weapons without good reason they may
authorise powers for officers in uniform to stop and search any
person or vehicle within a defined area and time period.
•
Section 43 & 44 Terrorism Act – powers for officers to stop and
search anyone in a designated area without reasonable suspicion
were removed by the MPS on 8 July 2010. Officers may use
Section 43 powers which require reasonable suspicion in order to
carry out the stop and search.
•
“StopIt” approach - introduced by the MPS in January 2012,
“StopIt” aims to focus stop and search on tackling serious
violence and using the power in a more intelligence-led and
targeted way.
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Calculations
•
Ar r e s t r a te – t h e n u m b er o f a rre st s re su lt in g f ro m st o p s a n d se a rch e s d ivid e d b y t h e t o t a l
n u m b er o f st o p s a n d se a rch e s. T h is is o f t e n p re se n t ed a s a p e rce n t a ge.
– e.g. 121 (arrests) / 1005 (searches)
x 100 = 12.0% (arrest rate)
•
P e r 1 , 0 0 0 popul a ti on – t h e n u m b er o f st o p s a n d se a rch e s d ivid e d b y t o t a l p o p u lat ion
m u lt ip lie d b y 1 , 0 0 0 t o sh o w a ra t e wh ich is a m o re su it a b le d e n o mina t or f o r co m p a riso n.
– e.g. 600 (searches) / 166,058 (total population)
x 1,000 = 3.61 searches per 1,000 population
•
Di s pr oporti ona l i ty ra ti o - Disp ro p o rt ion alit y is t h e t e rm u se d t o e xp la in t h e d iff e ren ce in t h e
n u m b er o f se a rch e s m a d e o n d iff e rent gro u p s re la t ive t o t h e size o f t h e re sp e ct ive p o p ulat io n
b a se .
Disp ro p o rt iona lit y is ca lcu la t ed f ro m st o p a n d se a rch a n d p o p u lat ion d at a. Fo r e xa m p le :
T h e n u m b er o f b la ck st o p s a n d se a rch e s / t h e b la ck p o p ulat io n in t h o u sa nd s (t h e b la ck st o p a n d
se a rch ra t e p e r 1 , 0 0 0 )
d ivid e d b y
T h e n u m b er o f wh it e st o p s a n d se a rch e s / b y t h e wh it e p o p u lat ion in t h o u sa nds (t h e wh it e st o p
a n d se a rch ra t e p e r 1 , 0 0 0 )
OR
T h e n u m b er o f b la ck st o p s a n d se a rch e s / n u m b e r o f wh it e st o p s a n d se a rch e s m u lt ip lied b y t h e
wh it e p o p u lat io n / b la ck p o p ulat io n
12
How do the trend lines in your borough
compare to London as a whole?
Trend line
Stop & account
Stop & search
Y axis = measurement (e.g. volume, percentage)
X axis = time period (e.g. month)
Legend (what the trend lines are telling you)
Raw data included in graph
13
What is going on behind these
peaks?
Pre-planned sporting event,
demonstration etc.?
14
Large proportion of searches are
drugs related
Do stop and search reasons reflect
borough operations or borough
priorities?
15
Arrest rate – the number of arrests resulting
from stops and searches divided by the total
number of stops and searches x 100
Red & blue
line
Green
line
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Based on officer
perception
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Difference in number of searches
conducted on different ethnic groups
relative to respective population bases
Black
Asian
Compared to searches of white people (set at �1’)
Other
Resident versus �street’ population?
Population
(Census 2011)
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Met wide data
only – not
included in
borough
monitoring
mechanisms
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Based on definition given by person stopped
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What was the search reason?
What was the arrest reason?
Arrest reason/all arrests for
search reason x 100
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Caution when comparing
volumes
Compare % against MPS and
neighbouring/similar boroughs
Key MOPAC 7 crime types
Violence with injury, burglary, robbery, theft from the
person, theft of motor vehicles, theft from motor vehicles
and criminal damage
26
Some further sources of information
•
•
•
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Me tr opol i ta n P ol i c e c ri me fi gure s : h t t p : / / www. m e t . p o lice . uk/ crim ef igu res/
Na ti ona l s top a nd s e a rch da ta : h t t p s: / / www. go v. u k/ go ve rn m e n t / co llect io ns/ police -p owe rs a n d -p ro cedure s -en gland-a nd-wa le s S t a t ist ics o n a rre st s f o r re co rd e d crim e, st o p s a n d
se a rch e s, b re a t h t e st s a n d p o lice a ct io n in re la t io n t o m o t o rin g o ff e nces.
MP S publ i c c ompl a i nts a nd c onduc t da ta (Borough S upport Ma na ge m e nt I nfor m a ti on):
h t t p : / / www. m e t . p o lice . u k/ f oi/ un it s/ direct o rat e _pro f essional_ st andard s. ht m P a ge 9 in clu d es
n u m b er o f o ff ice r/ st a ff a lle ga t io ns a risin g f ro m a st o p a n d se a rch in cid e n t .
London Da ta s tore : h t t p : / / d a t a . london . gov. u k/ &
h t t p : / / d a t a . londo n. gov. u k/ d at ast o re/ pa ckage/ m et ro polit an -p olice -se rvice -re cord ed -crim ef igu re s -a n d-asso ciat ed -d at a T he L o n d on Da t a st o re in clu d es va rio u s d a t a se t s su ch a s
e n viro n m e nt , h e a lt h , t ra n sp o rt a n d t h e e co n om y. T h e p o licin g a n d crim e se ct io n o f t h e
d a sh b oard in clu d es re co rd e d crim e , o ff ice r n u m b ers a n d lo n ge r t e rm (f ro m A p ril 2 0 0 8 ) vo lu m e
o f st o p s a n d se a rch e s a n d a rre st ra t e , o ff ice r n u m b ers, A S B d a t a a n d MP S P u b lic A t t it u d e
S u rve y (PA S ) d a t a .
Da yti m e popul a ti on: h t t p : / / d a t a. lo ndon. go v. u k/ dat a st ore / package / dayt im e -po pulat ion b o ro u gh E st im a t e d n umb er o f p e o p le in a b o ro u gh in t h e d a yt im e d u rin g a n a ve ra ge t e rm t im e
d a y (b a se d o n b u sin e ss, e d u ca t ion , t o u rism , p a sse n ger a n d p o p ula t ion d a t a ).
Bor ough profi l e s : h t t p : / / d a t a . london . gov. u k/ da t ast ore / packa ge/ lond on -b orou gh-pro f iles He lp
p a in t a ge n e ra l p ict u re o f a n a re a b y p re se n t ing a ra n ge o f h e a d lin e in d ica t o r d a t a co ve rin g
d e m o gra phic, e co n o mic, so cia l a n d e n viro n m ent a l d a t a se t s.
London Ce ns us da ta : h t t p : / / d a t a . lond on. gov. u k/ ce nsus Re su lt s f ro m t h e 2 0 11 Ce n su s a t
L o n d on a n d b o ro u gh le ve l.
HMIC c ri me c ompa ra tor: h tt p : / / www. h m ic. go v. u k/ crim e -a nd -policing-co mpa rat or/ Da t a o n
re co rd e d crim e a n d a n t i -so cia l b e h avio u r (A S B ), qu a lit y o f se rvice , f in a n ces a n d wo rkf o rce
n u m b ers f o r a ll p o lice f o rce s in E n gla n d a n d Wales.
P ol i c e pow e rs to s top a nd s e a rch – your ri ghts : h t t p s: / / www. go v. u k/ p o lice -p o we rs -t o -st o pa n d -se arch -yo u r -righ t s G o ve rn m e n t we b sit e d e t a ilin g p o lice p o we rs t o st o p a n d se a rch a n d
righ t s o f t h e in d ivid u a l .
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