вЂњTo Build a FireвЂќ Jack London Author Information вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Born John Griffith London in 1876. Suspicious of who his real father was and this showed up in many of his short stories Supported himself from age 13 on Worked in a cannery, was a coal shoveler, and was a hobo for part of his early years Jack London in the Klondike Photo 2 Jack London continued вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Entered and left University of California Berkley due to money Observed Marx and Darwin, who also had an influence on naturalism. Looked for gold in the Klondike from 1897-1898 Claimed to dislike his job and said he wrote only for money. Died in 1916 and was the best-selling American author at the time. Terms to Know вЂў вЂў Scientific Determinism: the philosophical doctrine that every act or decision is the inevitable consequence of antecedents (things that came before), such as psychological or environmental conditions that are independent of human will. Things are already set in motion Darwinism вЂў A theory that explains the origin and perpetuation of new species, both animal and plant. It says that offspring vary and naturally favor the survival of some over others. Because of this, a large variety of animals and plants have emerged from original species. Social Darwinism вЂў вЂў ***Central to our short story A theory that inherent dynamic forces allow only the fittest persons or organizations to prosper in a competitive environment or situation. Yukon Trail вЂў вЂў вЂў Also called the Klondike Trail People, mainly immigrants, following the Klondike river to Dawson, Yukon (westernmost part of Canada) in order to search for gold. 1897 A quick look at lit. movements: вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Romantic Era: (1780вЂ™s-1840вЂ™s) Writing revolved around nature and the artistic beauty of life. Stories have an easily identifiable protagonist & antagonist. The setting is usually exotic and the time and place are often vague. Authors were very symbolic and imagination praised over reason. Example: Nathaniel Hawthorne Continued вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Realism Era: (1840вЂ™s-1890) An age of realism and truth in literature. Also called the Victorian age because Queen Victoria reigned at the time. An age of newspaper, magazine, and modern novels. Some authors wrote of war and nationally loyalty, while others wrote of love. Example: Alfred Lord Tennyson Continued вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Naturalism: (1865-1914) -Literary device using scientific determinism. -Emphasis on the biological and has a theme of survival. -Draws from Darwin and Marx, Freud and Newton. Authors tend to be pessimistic and objective about presenting information. -Example: see related authors Vocabulary вЂў вЂў вЂў Monotonously: done in a boring, tedious, or repetitive way. Speculatively: examining something theoretically or hypothetically Recoiled: to pull back or jump back Related Stories & Authors вЂў LondonвЂ™s other work: вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў The Call of the Wild (1904) The SeaWolf (1904) White Fang (1906) Other Naturalists вЂў вЂў Stephen Crane-The Open Boat Theodore Dreiser-Old Rogaum and His Theresa Reading the story вЂў See packet questions Quick Review вЂў вЂў What is the difference between Social Determinism and Social Darwinism? Quick Quiz Works Cited вЂў вЂў вЂў "Darwinism." Merriam-Webster. 12 Mar. 2008 <http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/Darwinism>. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. 6th ed. Vol. C. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2003. 971-986. Reading Literature. Evanston: McDougal, Littel & Company, 1986. 333-347.