From Them to UsвЂ¦ Why evolution does not mean we came from MONKEYSвЂ¦ Primates Primates are an order of mammals which includes lemurs, monkeys, apes, and humans Where do we separate? COMMON PRIMATE TRAITS 5 DIGITS ON BOTH HANDS & FEET NAILS INSTEAD OF CLAWS FLEXIBLE HANDS WITH ABILITY TO GRIP ERECT UPPER BODY COLLARBONE SMALL NOSE, NO ACUTE SENSE OF SMELL USE OF VISION AS PRIMARY SENSE LARGE & COMPLEX BRAIN EFFICIENT FETAL NOURISHMENT LONG PERIODS OF INFANT DEPENDENCY AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR ADULT MALES ALWAYS PRESENT WITHIN GROUP (HELP IN CHILD REARING). Trends in Primate Evolution 1) Larger body size 2) Increasing brain size or cranial capacity 3) More upright standing 4) Living in or near trees 5) A diet that includes plants and animals 6) Binocular vision that allows for depth perception Trends in Primate Evolution continuedвЂ¦ 7) Specialized color vision 8) A decreasing number of young produced al one time 9) Longer embryonic and childhood development 10) Specialized thumb 11) Increasing lifespan 12) Growing complexity of social behavior Differences Between Man and Apes Humans have the development of more specialized areas in the brain Humans have a more vertical face plate Humans have a smaller jaw and more evenly rounded arch Humans have smaller canine teeth Humans have smaller molars Humans have longer lower limbs (legs) and shorter upper limbs (arms) The biggyвЂ¦Bipedalism Bipedalism is erect posture and walking with two feet Bipedalism was important in developing the ability to hunt and make tools Hominids Hominids are a family of primates which includes all two-legged manlike species, extinct or living Examples of hominids are erect walking apes, ourselves and our ancestors Ardipithecus ramidus (Ar. Ramidus) Ardi 4.4 m.y.a. Ethiopia Bipedal Theory Stubby Canines Cooperative males? The Australopithecines Means вЂњSouthern ApeвЂќ Australopithecus was an erect walking ape that was a member of the hominid family There were at least 5 kinds of Australopithecines, but probably one was manвЂ™s ancestor Australopithecines lived 5 to 1 million years ago Australopithecus Anamensis 4.2-3.9 mya Found: Tibia, pieces of skull, and mandible Characteristics: Probably walked upright. Enamel on teeth suggests a diet of hard food but size is pretty primitive. Probably lived in open woodland in area that is now northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. Australopithecus Afarensis 4-3 mya Australopithecus Afarensis resembled a chimpanzee, but was upright and bipedal They lived 4-2.7 million years ago A.Afarensis probably did not make tools or understand fire Australopithecus Afarensis 4-3 mya Characteristics: Foreword protruding face U-Shaped Jaw (like an ape; human jawвЂ™s are parabolic shaped) Small Cranial Capacity (About the same size as modern chimps). Debatable descendentsвЂ¦homo? robustus? Lucy Lucy was an Australopithecus Afarensis Her skeleton was was discovered by Donald Johanson in Ethiopia in 1974 She was the most complete pre-human skeleton ever found Her bones gave many clues about her anatomy, diet and lifestyle More Discoveries of A. Afarensis Fossils AL 129 Complete Knee Joint 1976 Donald Johanson Hadar Region of Ethiopia Significance Shows angle of femur to place foot under center of body. Confirms upright walking. More Discoveries of A. Afarensis Fossils Footprints at Laetoli 3.6 mya Footprints of two creatures formed in fresh lava ash. 1975 Mary Leakey Laetoli, Tanzania Significance Height determined by length of stride 4вЂ™-4вЂ™8вЂќ Confirmed Bipedality by this time вЂў Big toe in line вЂў Heel toe strike when walking Location of Afarensis Finds Australopithecus Africanus 3.3-2.5 mya вЂњSouthern Apeman of AfricaвЂќ First Australopithicine to be identified Raymond DartвЂ™s Taung Child (1925) The species walked upright and probably used tools It is unknown where it came from and who it led too. Australopithecus Africanus Findings Taung Child Australopithicus garhi 2.5 mya вЂўMay be a link between genus Australopithicus and Homo вЂўMay have been the earliest tool user вЂўfound scratches on Antelope bone fossils вЂўFound in Ethiopia in 1997 Paranthropus boisei 2.3-1.2 mya Highly specialized for heavy chewing. Thrived in drier savannah climate. Specialization may have been downfall as climate changed and it was unable to adapt. Australopithecus Robustus Australopithecus Robustus was probably another human вЂњcousinвЂќ The species was large and was probably a vegetarian Robustus lived 2.2-1 million years ago Robustus was possibly preyed on by early humans Fossils of Robustus were first found in East and South Africa in the 1930s and 40s by the Leakey family A. Robustus Finds Timeline of Human Evolution The Evolution of Humans Louis Leakey and Olduvai Gorge Dr. Louis Leakey and his wife, Mary , did their fieldwork at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania Dr. Richard Leakey, their son , currently does fieldwork in the Lake Turkana region Louis Leakey is credited with the discovery of Homo Habilis, the first human Homo Habilis 2.3-1.6 mya пЃ¶ вЂњHandy ManвЂќ пЃ¶ Homo Habilis was the earliest known species of the genus homo пЃ¶ Probably made tools пЃ¶ Probably scavenged for meat and ate vegetation пЃ¶ Skull was 30% larger than Australopithecines пЃ¶ Brain much more human like in shape. Homo Habilis Some anthropologists believe that Homo Habilis hunted for prey These tools are believed to be the tools of Homo Habilis Homo Habilis Finds Homo rudolfensis 2.3-1.6 mya & Homo ergaster 1.9-1.6 mya Not much is known about Rudolfensis Homo ergaster is the earlier African only form of Homo erectus. Very rounded cranium, more spacious Small teeth Homo ergaster Homo rudolfensis Homo Erectus 1.9-.3 mya вЂњErect of Upright ManвЂќ Homo Erectus was the first large brained human Sometimes called вЂњJava ManвЂќ or вЂњPeking ManвЂќ Homo Erectus Homo Erectus made tools and lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle Diet included plants and animals Homo Erectus Homo Erectus was the first hominid to migrate from Africa Homo Erectus remains have been found in Africa, Asia and Europe HANDSOME FELLA! HOMO ERECTUS HOMO ERECTUS WAS THE FIRST HOMINID TO BE DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT THE OLD WORLD, PERHAPS EVEN TO EUROPE, ITSELF. 1 MILLION YEARS AGO HOMO ERECTUS LIVED IN ASIA 1.8 MILLION YEARS AGO IN JAVA PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS SKULL WAS LONG, LOW, AND THICK WALLED WITH FLAT FRONTAL AREA AND PROMINENT BROW RIDGES NOSE PROJECTED AND FROM THE NECK DOWN, INDISTINGUISHABLE FROM HOMO SAPIENS HEIGHT AND WEIGHT RESEMBLED THAT OF MODERN HUMANS Homo Heidelbergensis 700-100,000 years ago The between species. Features of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. Very robust mandible, no chin Very prominent brow ridge Increased cranial capacity. Smaller teeth but bigger than Homo sapiens. Neanderthal Man 250-30,000 years ago Homo Neanderthalensis This species was human , but was probably not an ancestor to modern humans Neanderthal Man Neanderthal man had large arms and legs His brain was actually larger than modern humans, but the language and speech center of the brain was not well developed Neantherthal man was a hunter who made tools, had primitive language skills and used fire Neanderthal Man Fossilized remains of Neanderthal Man were first found in the Neander Valley of Germany in 1857 Neanderthal man is sometimes referred to as a cave man Homo Sapiens 130,000 years ago-Present вЂњThinking ManвЂќ Lighter build in skeleton Enormous brain capacity 1300 cc from 400 cc of early Australopithicine. Early discoveries called Cro-Magnon Man.