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Evolution of Man

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From Them to
Us…
Why evolution does not mean we
came from MONKEYS…
Primates
Primates are an
order of mammals
which includes
lemurs, monkeys,
apes, and humans
Where do we
separate?
COMMON
PRIMATE TRAITS
5 DIGITS ON BOTH HANDS & FEET
NAILS INSTEAD OF CLAWS
FLEXIBLE HANDS WITH ABILITY TO
GRIP
ERECT UPPER BODY
COLLARBONE
SMALL NOSE, NO ACUTE SENSE OF
SMELL
USE OF VISION AS PRIMARY SENSE
LARGE & COMPLEX BRAIN
EFFICIENT FETAL NOURISHMENT
LONG PERIODS OF INFANT
DEPENDENCY AND LEARNED
BEHAVIOR
ADULT MALES ALWAYS PRESENT
WITHIN GROUP (HELP IN CHILD
REARING).
Trends in Primate Evolution
1) Larger body size
2) Increasing brain size or
cranial capacity
3) More upright standing
4) Living in or near trees
5) A diet that includes
plants and animals
6) Binocular vision that
allows for depth
perception
Trends in Primate Evolution
continued…
7) Specialized color vision
8) A decreasing number
of young produced al
one time
9) Longer embryonic and
childhood development
10) Specialized thumb
11) Increasing lifespan
12) Growing complexity of
social behavior
Differences Between Man and
Apes
Humans have the development
of more specialized areas in the
brain
Humans have a more vertical
face plate
Humans have a smaller jaw and
more evenly rounded arch
Humans have smaller canine
teeth
Humans have smaller molars
Humans have longer lower limbs
(legs) and shorter upper limbs
(arms)
The biggy…Bipedalism
Bipedalism is erect
posture and walking
with two feet
Bipedalism was
important in
developing the ability
to hunt and make
tools
Hominids
Hominids are a family of
primates which includes
all two-legged manlike
species, extinct or living
Examples of hominids
are erect walking apes,
ourselves and our
ancestors
Ardipithecus ramidus (Ar. Ramidus)
Ardi
4.4 m.y.a.
Ethiopia
Bipedal Theory
Stubby Canines
Cooperative males?
The Australopithecines
Means “Southern Ape”
Australopithecus was an
erect walking ape that
was a member of the
hominid family
There were at least 5
kinds of
Australopithecines, but
probably one was man’s
ancestor
Australopithecines lived
5 to 1 million years ago
Australopithecus Anamensis
4.2-3.9 mya
Found: Tibia, pieces of
skull, and mandible
Characteristics:
Probably walked upright.
Enamel on teeth suggests a
diet of hard food but size is
pretty primitive.
Probably lived in open
woodland in area that is
now northern Kenya and
southern Ethiopia.
Australopithecus Afarensis
4-3 mya
Australopithecus
Afarensis resembled a
chimpanzee, but was
upright and bipedal
They lived 4-2.7 million
years ago
A.Afarensis probably did
not make tools or
understand fire
Australopithecus Afarensis
4-3 mya
Characteristics:
Foreword protruding
face
U-Shaped Jaw (like an
ape; human jaw’s are
parabolic shaped)
Small Cranial Capacity
(About the same size as
modern chimps).
Debatable
descendents…homo?
robustus?
Lucy
Lucy was an
Australopithecus
Afarensis
Her skeleton was was
discovered by Donald
Johanson in Ethiopia in
1974
She was the most
complete pre-human
skeleton ever found
Her bones gave many
clues about her anatomy,
diet and lifestyle
More Discoveries of A. Afarensis
Fossils
AL 129
Complete Knee Joint
1976
Donald Johanson
Hadar Region of Ethiopia
Significance
Shows angle of femur to
place foot under center of
body.
Confirms upright walking.
More Discoveries of A. Afarensis
Fossils
Footprints at Laetoli
3.6 mya
Footprints of two creatures
formed in fresh lava ash.
1975
Mary Leakey
Laetoli, Tanzania
Significance
Height determined by length of
stride 4’-4’8”
Confirmed Bipedality by this time
• Big toe in line
• Heel toe strike when walking
Location of Afarensis Finds
Australopithecus Africanus
3.3-2.5 mya
“Southern Apeman of
Africa”
First Australopithicine
to be identified
Raymond Dart’s Taung
Child (1925)
The species walked
upright and probably
used tools
It is unknown where it
came from and who it
led too.
Australopithecus Africanus
Findings
Taung Child
Australopithicus garhi
2.5 mya
•May be a link between genus
Australopithicus and Homo
•May have been the earliest tool
user
•found scratches on Antelope
bone fossils
•Found in Ethiopia in 1997
Paranthropus boisei
2.3-1.2 mya
Highly specialized for
heavy chewing.
Thrived in drier savannah
climate.
Specialization may have
been downfall as climate
changed and it was unable
to adapt.
Australopithecus Robustus
Australopithecus Robustus was
probably another human
“cousin”
The species was large and was
probably a vegetarian
Robustus lived 2.2-1 million
years ago
Robustus was possibly preyed
on by early humans
Fossils of Robustus were first
found in East and South
Africa in the 1930s and 40s by
the Leakey family
A. Robustus Finds
Timeline of Human Evolution
The Evolution of Humans
Louis Leakey and Olduvai
Gorge
Dr. Louis Leakey and his
wife, Mary , did their
fieldwork at Olduvai
Gorge, Tanzania
Dr. Richard Leakey, their
son , currently does
fieldwork in the Lake
Turkana region
Louis Leakey is credited
with the discovery of
Homo Habilis, the first
human
Homo Habilis
2.3-1.6 mya
 “Handy Man”
пЃ¶ Homo Habilis was the
earliest known species of
the genus homo
пЃ¶ Probably made tools
пЃ¶ Probably scavenged for
meat and ate vegetation
пЃ¶ Skull was 30% larger
than Australopithecines
пЃ¶ Brain much more
human like in shape.
Homo Habilis
Some anthropologists
believe that Homo
Habilis hunted for
prey
These tools are
believed to be the
tools of Homo
Habilis
Homo Habilis Finds
Homo rudolfensis 2.3-1.6 mya &
Homo ergaster 1.9-1.6 mya
Not much is known
about Rudolfensis
Homo ergaster is the
earlier African only form
of Homo erectus.
Very rounded cranium,
more spacious
Small teeth
Homo ergaster
Homo rudolfensis
Homo Erectus
1.9-.3 mya
“Erect of Upright
Man”
Homo Erectus was
the first large brained
human
Sometimes called
“Java Man” or
“Peking Man”
Homo Erectus
Homo Erectus made
tools and lived a
hunter-gatherer
lifestyle
Diet included plants
and animals
Homo Erectus
Homo Erectus was
the first hominid to
migrate from Africa
Homo Erectus
remains have been
found in Africa, Asia
and Europe
HANDSOME
FELLA!
HOMO ERECTUS
HOMO ERECTUS WAS THE FIRST
HOMINID TO BE DISTRIBUTED
THROUGHOUT THE OLD WORLD,
PERHAPS EVEN TO EUROPE, ITSELF.
1 MILLION YEARS AGO HOMO ERECTUS
LIVED IN ASIA
1.8 MILLION YEARS AGO IN JAVA
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SKULL WAS LONG, LOW, AND THICK
WALLED WITH FLAT FRONTAL AREA AND
PROMINENT BROW RIDGES
NOSE PROJECTED AND FROM THE NECK
DOWN, INDISTINGUISHABLE FROM HOMO
SAPIENS
HEIGHT AND WEIGHT RESEMBLED THAT
OF MODERN HUMANS
Homo Heidelbergensis
700-100,000 years ago
The between species.
Features of Homo
erectus and Homo
sapiens.
Very robust mandible,
no chin
Very prominent brow
ridge
Increased cranial
capacity.
Smaller teeth but bigger
than Homo sapiens.
Neanderthal Man
250-30,000 years ago
Homo
Neanderthalensis
This species was
human , but was
probably not an
ancestor to modern
humans
Neanderthal Man
Neanderthal man had
large arms and legs
His brain was actually
larger than modern
humans, but the
language and speech
center of the brain was
not well developed
Neantherthal man was a
hunter who made tools,
had primitive language
skills and used fire
Neanderthal Man
Fossilized remains of
Neanderthal Man
were first found in
the Neander Valley
of Germany in 1857
Neanderthal man is
sometimes referred
to as a cave man
Homo Sapiens
130,000 years ago-Present
“Thinking Man”
Lighter build in
skeleton
Enormous brain
capacity
1300 cc from 400 cc of
early Australopithicine.
Early discoveries called
Cro-Magnon Man.
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