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Human evolution

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Human Evolution
Session III
Man-Neurology
A multidisciplinary anthropic focus
Biological roots
пѓ� Man
emerges as a product of life
evolution on Earth.
пѓ� Man connects immediately with the
species of hominids.
пѓ� Hominids have its origin in natural
history of life.
In a scientific view, man is to be
explained as a superior development
of the emergent anthropic properties
of life-matter-universe.
2
Biological roots
The emergent anthropic properties of
life-matter-universe are:
пѓ�
Stable hypercomplexity of living
organisms.
пѓ�
Constitution of �sensibility’.
пѓ�
Constitution of self-controlling.
3
MAN-NEUROLOGY
Biological roots
4
Primordial mechanical, sensation
пѓ� Physical
causality were predominant.
пѓ� Sensation began and caused adaptive
responses.
пѓ� The organic system evolved until
superior animals finally coordinated both:
• Classical cause-effect mechanisms
• Control of consciousness and psychic
subject
пѓ� Psychic
activity develops.
пѓ� Psychology is related to neurology.
5
Emergence of sensations
If we postulate matter’s ontology
to be �physical support’ for
�sensation’, life emerged from
physical world as systems of
interaction between differentiated
and individual entities of fermionic
matter:
Why, when and how did sensation
evolutionarily emerge?
6
Emergence of sensations
In advanced stages of cell evolution,
unicellular organisms, like paramecium,
seem to respond with �sensitivity’.
пѓ�
Should it be attributed to quantum
effects of microtubules according to
the Hameroff-Penrose hypothesis?
пѓ�
Are there other alternative theories
to justify when and how sensitivity
evolved?
7
Neuronal patterns
8
Neuronal patterns
пѓ�
Although all cells seem to have certain
sensibility, the selective and organized
sensitivity in pluricellular bodies is
called the nervous system.
пѓ�
Neurons begin to form systems of
interaction (patterns, cannons, maps,
structures, networks, engrams…) that
produce information and control
responses.
9
Neuronal patterns
A certain part of these patterns
produce the structural and sensitive basis
for the �psychic subject’.
пѓ� The major part of patterns do not have
�sensitive’ connection with consciousness
and psychic subject, they form the
unconscious launching pad of psychic
activity, but coordinated with all conscious
functions.
пѓ�
10
Neural systems
пѓ� Neural
patterns have been organized in
differentiated subsystems.
пѓ� Criteria
for this organization are the
different functions to serve in order for an
evolutive optimum survival adaptation.
пѓ� The
most primitive differentiation was
between information (sensitive) and motor
systems in order to adaptive stimulusresponse connection.
11
MAN-NEUROLOGY
neural systems
пѓ� Inner
and outer perceptual and motor
skills systems appeared.
� Sensitive body’s cartography in brain
and systems integration produced the
emergence of the neural basis for a
�psychic subject’.
пѓ� New fields of neurons grew up to form
the cerebral connection areas:
• Animal superior brain.
• Human brain.
12
Human phenomenology
пѓ� The
specific human brain development
is supposed to be the cause of specific
human behavior.
пѓ� Phenomenology
distinguishes between
animal and human behavior:
• Animal behavior is instinctive, closed
responses with short indetermination field.
• Human behavior is ratio-emotional with a
wide indetermination referred to a self
constructed field of possibilities.
13
Human phenomenology
Reason is the main specific feature of
human mind.
Which causes produced the evolutive
emergence of reason from inside the
animal realm?
14
Monism
пѓ� The
main phenomenological feature
that needs explanation is reason. The
human mind is characterized by ratioemotional functioning.
пѓ� How can reason, as a fact, be referred to
by its causes?
пѓ� What is the scientific explicans for
emergence and rational functioning of the
human mind?
15
Scientific response = monism
пѓ� Monism
means unitary explanation of the
universe as a whole with all its contents.
пѓ� Are human sciences up to a monistic
explanation of the evolutive emergence
of human life?
пѓ� For the dualistic proposal, monism is not
capable of explaining the human mind.
There is a dualism:
•
•
referred to life in general.
restricted to human mind
16
Dualism
Dualism argues the incapability of monism
to explain:
• In general dualism: the unity of
consciousness, holistic experience, and
indetermination.
• In human dualism: the specific features
of human mind such as rationalemotional behavior.
17
Dualism
The increasing
high quality of
a monistic view
immediately
reduces the
justification of
a dualistic
assumption.
18
Explican’s framework
пѓ� Does
a monistic view explain the
emergence of the human mind?
пѓ� Monism
coordinates different theories:
• in connection with a general theory of life
(classical and quantum theories).
• for specific explanation of the new human
ratio-emotional behavior.
пѓ� For
human sciences, and neurology, the
main point is to explain origin and causes
of the emergence of human reason.
19
Reductionism framework
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
Reductionist theories continue to exist
Classical theories of fermionic causation, which
do not consider quantum field effects.
Their models of brain activity are computational
machines: either serial or connectionist (PDP).
Reason would be thus a hypercomplex
computational processing of information to
produce behavioral adaptation.
Sensation – perception – consciousness are
epiphenomenal features, they are not the cause
of behavior.
20
Neural Darwinism, Edelman
пѓ�
Edelman did not consider that quantum effects
play a role in explaining consciousness.
пѓ� The brain is not a computer, but aspects of its
behavior can be better understood either by
simulation or by computer modeling.
пѓ� Organic nucleus of consciousness, countless
neural maps and reentries between them, neural
deterministic selection between countless
possibilities are the basis to explain:
• Holistic unity of consciousness.
• Hypercomplexity.
• Indetermination and behavior’s flexibility.
21
The origin of Reason
What about the origin of reason?
The final stage of a �representation’
evolution that has its origin in memory
(remembered present).
22
Quantum Neurology
пѓ�
Accepts any determinist (classical) causes
and the framework of neural Darwinism.
пѓ� Evolutive emergence of quantum niches
produce �sensation’ and phenomenological
psychic activity in coordination with
unconscious and classical mechanisms.
пѓ� Psychic activity through consciousness
produces and controls behavior
пѓ� What about the origin of reason? Should it
also be understood as a final stage in the
evolution of Reason?
23
Hominization theories
пѓ� Hominization
theories can be considered as
complementary inside the framework of the
basic theories. (Reductionism, Darwinism,
Quantum Theory)
пѓ� Hominization by inespecialization (A. Gehlen).
пѓ� Hominization by labour adaptation (the
classic monistic theory).
пѓ� Hominization by language-socialization
(Tobias, Eccles, Lea Rey …)
24
Hyperformalization, X. Zubiri
Animal formalize the perceived world.
A supposed human hyperformalization
would have made it possible to sense the
world not only as a stimulus but as an
independent �reality’.
� �Sensation of reality’ would produce a
human representation of reality as a
structure.
пѓ� Reason would therefore be representation
of reality by analysis and synthesis of real
structures.
пѓ�
пѓ�
25
Anthropic projection
пѓ�
Man is for Science an evolutive
product of Matter-Universe and its
biological forms of organization.
пѓ� The primordial anthropic properties
of Matter-Universe have provided
the constitution of the human brain
and the psychic activity of the
human mind.
26
Anthropic projection
Neural organization of human brain opens
a new world of anthropic possibilities:
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
Man begins to think carefully over reality.
Rational analysis leads beyond immediate
phenomena to question ultimate truth.
All possibilities of Science are opened.
All possibilities of Technology are opened.
Life with a new ratio-emotional feeling.
Man seeks the �meaning of life’ through
philosophy, theology and culture in general.
27
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