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The Origins, History and Evolution of Anime and Manga

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The Origins, History and
Evolution of Anime and Manga
Senior Project Presentation by Ivy
The Origins & History of Manga
Above: Example of Edo. Below: example of Animal Scrolls, choujuugiga
The Zen cartoons of the medieval
period and the comic animal scrolls of
the tenth century were the very first
examples of manga (Japanese comics).
In the 13th century, pictures of the
afterlife and animals started appearing
on temple walls and are similar to
modern manga.
From there, manga started to branch
out to many other subjects.
The manga drawn on wood blocks in
the 1600's was known as edo.
Edo was often graphically erotic, but
branched out to encompass other
subjects like buildings and satire
In 1815, the term “manga” came into existence. “Man" meaning “in spite
of oneself” or “whimsical”, and "ga" meaning picture.
The next kind of manga, emerging in
the 16th century, were ink brushed
illustrated prints with captions, but it
lacked a progressive story.
Because of the censorship in Japan
during the late 1920's and early 30's the
Japanese government began to
intimidate artists and publishers. The
result was the closing-down or extreme
censoring of magazines.
To say what needed to be said, "jail
editors" would take the blame for
publishing a comic that criticized the
government and went to jail.
Tezuka debuted with a comic book in
1947, “New Treasure Island”, an
Akahon (a cheap "Red Book").
Akahon was a niche industry that
provided entertainment to the poor
children of post-war Japan. New
Treasure Island sold an unprecedented
400,000 copies, changing the face of
manga forever.
Above: Tezuka’s “New Treasure Island.” Below: Hokusai’s
Great Wave wood block, a very famous manga.
The Origins & History of Anime
In 1963, Tetsuwan Atomu (the
Japanese name for Astroboy, means
“Mighty Atom”) came out as a
television series. This was the first
anime. Astroboy was a robot that
wished to be a real boy.
Next hit anime to come down the
pike was Speed Racer In 1967.
Hi No Tori (Bird of Fire) was
Tezuka’s greatest work, (not
Astroboy) in America known as
Phoenix 2772.
Anime is just what the Japanese call Animation in general.
The end of the 70s brought Captain Harlock: Space
Pirate, Space Cruiser Yamato and Galaxy Express
which fused drama and high adventure like no other
before. Mobile Suit Gundam turned industry upside
down with its character development, "Newtypes"
and "one of the greatest stories ever told in anime"
(Right Stuf International).
The golden years of anime
•In 1981, Rumiko Takahashi's “Urusei
Yatsura” (Those Obnoxious Aliens) was a
hit, as well “Maison Ikkoku” and “Ranma
•It was Carl Macek got "Robotech"
(Macross) syndicated for American TV,
which triggered Third Wave fandom.
“Macross” was a hit.
•There were several highly popular films put
out in the mid 80s: Miyazaki's "NausГЇca of
the Valley of the Wind", “Castle in the Sky";
Urusei Yatsura: "Only You" and "Beautiful
Dreamer"; "My Youth in Arcadia", "Queen
Millenia Movie."
•The first video players/recorders came out
during this time.
• Following video players came a new way
to make anime at a much lower cost. OVA's
(Original Video Animation) were cheaper to
make and saved failing studios.
•By 1990s anime was influencing and
influenced by Western culture: a
“cross-pollination that enriches and
complicates anime”
•. At about this time, anime was
getting a bad rep thanks to the LA
Times and Fox News calling anime an
“assault an American Morals.”
•From 1991-1995 leaps were made in
the technology of animation. But not
much was going on otherwise except
for the success of “Macross” and
“Giant Robo.”
•Finally, US anime licensers, those
that legally bring anime to US fans,
are gaining a foot hold in the
American market.
Anime [R]Evolution
•Because Tezuka animated for Disney and was
influenced by their animation and that of Max
•Tezuka’s design was reminiscent of the Disney
style of that era, but the nose was made smaller
and the eyes slightly bigger, to show more
•After Astroboy’s success, other artists began
drawing anime to suit their own ideas of this up
and coming art form.
•Leiji Matsumoto's new design, which was
based on a French singer, motivated other
artists to create new styles of anime during the
From here, who knows to what bounds
anime and manga will expand?
•At the end of the 80’s, Rumiko Takahashi’s Ranma ½
(aka Ranma F) was a huge success. “During the early
1990's, Takahashi's design caused quite an uproar and
everyone wanted to copy this style.” (McPherson)
•Later, the popular style was that of Gundam Wing and
Evangelion. Anime artists and studios, sticking with
this style, eventually lead to the end of the cash
crunch in 1996.
•Considering the progression of anime since its
beginning, the most logical turn for anime in the
future is computer animation.
•Anime and manga is already integrating with the
digital age. interactive games are becoming more
"A Global History of Anime." 2000. The Right Stuf International. The Right Stuf International. 23 Nov. 2004
"Anime Terms!." ~~Kawaii Anime Manga Page~~. 23 Nov. 2004
Cirulnick, Brian. "HISTORY OF ANIME: Osamu Tezuka ." TAP anime. 23 Nov. 2004
Hadad, Ivan . "Glossary." Anime and American Cartoons. 23 Nov. 2004
McPherson, Mark. "The Evolution of Anime." 5 2004. Anime Bordom. 23 Nov. 2004
Napier, Susan J. Anime from Akira to Princess Mononoke. New York: PALGRAVE, 2000.
"The History of Manga." TAP anime. TAP anime. 23 Nov. 2004 <>.
"What do all of the weird words used on these pages mean?" 23 Nov. 2004
The Anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since 1917
by Jonathan Clements, Helen McCarthy. Stone Bridge Press, September 1, 2001.
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