Developmental Assessment Form Overview of developmental assessment assignment Developmental Assessment пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® 2 developmental forms due this semester worth 10 points each Infant or toddler school-age or adolescent (16 years or younger) Assessment of child and teaching are part of APU Service Learning and you can receive ministry credits. Purpose пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® To review growth and development in the various age groups To provide teaching and referral as needed To provide anticipatory teaching in the form of hand-outs, web site referrals, parenting groups, church, YMCA or local library. Six Questions for Developmental Screening 1. 2. Do you have any concerns about your childвЂ™s vision or hearing? What changes have you seen in your childвЂ™s development lately? 1. 2. Vision and hearing impairment Acquisition of physical, verbal and social skills. Page 227 of Bowden Text Six Questions 3. 4. 5. 6. What kind of child is he or she? What do you and your child enjoy doing together? What are his or her favorite play activities? Have there been any stressful events in the family lately? 3. 4. 5. 6. ChildвЂ™s temperament and personality Socio-emotional development and parent / child interaction Cognitive development Environmental factors inhibiting development Critical thinking пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® From the six questions what concerns did you pick up from caretaker? Are there areas of concern that you identified that the caretaker did not? Write a paragraph or two about why the area is of concern and and discussion you had with parent / child. Worth 10 points Developmental Assessment пЃ® пЃ® Use you text book as a guideline, growth and development text book or www.brightfutures.com This is the data collection portion of the assignment. Expected versus Actual пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® The expected behaviors are those you find in your textbook or growth and development text or on-line reliable resource. The actual behaviors need to be observed or reported by caretaker. Use childвЂ™s initials only вЂ“ do not use he or she вЂ“ to generic and will result in lost points Nutritional Assessment пЃ® Nutrition: calories, calcium intake, BMI, sample diet, ounces of formula consumed, graph height, weight, and Head Circumference (if under 3 years) Critical Thinking пЃ® How many calories does the child need to grow? пЃ® Are they getting to many or two few пЃ® What food groups are they deficit in пЃ® пЃ® Do they look overweight вЂ“ underweight Does the parent have any nutritional concerns? Infant nutrition пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Regain birth weight by 14 days Gain about 1 oz per day or 2 pounds per month from birth to age 6 months. 6 to 12 months: gain ВЅ or 1 pound per month Double birth weight by 4 months Triple birth weight by 1 year Intake пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® What kind of formula? How many calories per ounce? How many ounces per day? Solid food? When to introduce? What do you offer first? Age 1 to 3 nutrition пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Growth rate declines BW quadruples by end of second year Weight gain is 5 pounds a year from age 2 to 9 years May become picky eaters Develop consistent eating patterns Table food No bottle after 12 months School age пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Ask what their favorite food to eat is and what their least favorite food to eat is Do they eat breakfast Do they have family meals How much do they snack How much soda do they drink Food pyramid: do they know what it is? What kinds of physical activity do they do? Adolescent пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Do they eat breakfast Favorite foods How much fast foods do they consume Eating disorders can be a problem especially in the teenage girl Stress good nutritional choices Simple recipes Concerns about obesity Physical activity Physical Assessment пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® General assessment: Each age group has general physical milestones listed in the Bowden text. Chapter 5 Oral status / teeth Sexual Language / vision Gross motor Fine motor Milestones пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Social Interpersonal Emotional Moral / spiritual Safety: list needs only in this section Physical Assessment пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® General physical assessment: How does child look in general Skin, hair, general hygiene Teeth: cavities, braces, brushing and flossing, and visits to dentist Do not do a medical physical assessment. In the newborn assess fontanel, and do a normal newborn reflex exam. Sexual пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Masturbation Gender identity Sexual exploration: toddler Girl friend вЂ“ boy friend: school age Adolescent: пЃ± пЃ± Dating Sexual activity Language and vision пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Use guidelines for specific age group Be specific in your examples Observe the child Parent report Gross and Fine Motor пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Assess according to age appropriate guidelines Observe child in natural setting Ask parents about behaviors you cannot observe Ask about writing or drawing, computer use, typing etc Social пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Includes play Play is an important part of the childвЂ™s development Interaction with caretaker, other children, siblings etc If they are school-age or older ask about best friend Any group they associate with Social isolation is a red flag in all age groups for autism, depression, suicide. Emotional пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Ask the parent how they would describe the childвЂ™s temperament What did you observe during the interview Temper tantrums (toddler or adolescent) Discipline needed or used in household Parent / child fit Adaptability to environment вЂ“ quick to adapt вЂ“ slow to warm up Moral / Spiritual пЃ® пЃ® Kohlberg guidelines per age group Ask the school age and up about their spiritual beliefs Safety Issues пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® List the needs only based on the childвЂ™s developmental level Is the child very active and climbing all over the place Does the child try to imitate everything the old siblings do If in the home environment вЂ“ what safety hazards did you observe Seat belt, car restraints, sports safety, helmets, knee pads, stranger safety, emergency contacts, fire and earthquake preparedness, pool safety, gun storage and safety locks. The American Academy of Pediatrics has a statement on most safety concerns for the pediatric population. www.aap.org Two Theorists PiagetвЂ™s stages of cognitive development пЃ® Erickson's psychosocial stages of development пЃ® пЃ® Page 207 Bowden Page 210 Bowen Erickson: example Trust vs mistrust Caregiver responds in warm, caring manner to childвЂ™s needs to create trusting environment. If care is inconsistent and unrealistic, mistrust develops. пЃ® 2 months old infant Mother attentive to needs of child during the interview. Looks at baby in enface position and talks in a high-pitched voice. Check diaper and fed baby formula while being interviewed. Mother responded to babies whimpering by rocking her and talking to baby is soothing tones. пЃ® Piaget: example пЃ® пЃ® Substage 2: primary circular reactions (age 1 вЂ“ 4 months) пЃ® 2 month old: When rattle put in infant hand, infant grasped it but hit self in head with toy when hand moved towards head. Infant was startled by action. All newborn reflexes still exhibited. Critical Thinking пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® List areas of concern List the concerns per parent report and your concerns based on interview and observation Based on developmental level look to anticipatory guidance for the next age level Teaching Referral пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Please note the teaching / referral is worth 48 points in total. You must address each area and demonstrate some teaching or referral to earn full points. If you refer a client to website be specific in what you want to refer them to. Include copy of the teaching. Nutrition Teaching пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Obesity is a growing problem in the pediatric population Diabetes type 2 is a growing problem in the school age child Anorexia is prevalent in the teen population / female athletes Parents of infant may need information about breast feeding, formula, and when to introduce solid foods What do you do about the вЂњpickyвЂќ toddler who appear to eat вЂњnothingвЂќ. What do you suggest for the child with a diet full of fast foods and empty calories What is missing from the diet: iron rich foods, vegetables, calcium etc What suggestion did you give to family or child to improve the diet? Nutrition referrals пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Be specific вЂ“ include sample of the teaching tools There are games on line that the school-age can play to enhance their understanding of the food pyramid How can a teen may wise food choices in a fast food environment What can parents pack in lunches Suggest a parent / child grocery shopping trip to choose food What about teaching the child to cook simple meals DonвЂ™t forget the importance of stress different body types to the impressionable pre-teen who is concerned about body image вЂ“ just look at the teen magazines and see the вЂњwaif-likeвЂќ bodies of the teen movie stars Safety and injury prevention пЃ® пЃ® The major role of the pediatrician, PNP, FNP, school nurse, and pediatric nurse is teaching families / children how to prevent injuries specific to age groups based on growth and development and the environment. Look at AAP American Academy of Pediatrics www.aap.org for position statements on safety for each group. Safety Teaching пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Prevention is so much better than cure Prepare your house now, and good habits will save lives and prevent tragedy later Have poison control number posted Your friends and relatives homes may not be as safe as yours Address sports safety What to do when home alone Car safety: car seat, seat belt, driving Physical Development Teaching пЃ® пЃ® If no problem area identified do anticipatory for the next level. DonвЂ™t forget вЂ“ dental care, immunizations, vision, hearing, general hygiene fall into this area. Developmental / social пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® For the infant / toddler : play, social interaction, temper tantrums, not sleeping the night, separation anxiety, toilet training, day care or preschool. For the school age / adolescent: play, school, friends, peer pressure, parent вЂ“ child conflict Adolescent: dating, drinking, drugs For 12 years and up do the HEADS assessment Adolescent HEADSs Assessment пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® H: home E: Education A: Activities D: Drugs S: sexual activity S: suicide / depression Teaching пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Include referrals for your teaching Web sites are acceptable but you need to specific in what you referred the family to and why Remember books can be checked out of the library Hand outs / pamphlets Referral to clinic, school, teacher, primary care physician / NP DonвЂ™t forget community centers, YMCA, and church groups for parenting classes, babysitting referrals, mommy and me classes or support groups for the various age groups. In the handicapped child вЂ“ what groups can the parents become involved for support вЂ“ web site referrals for more information Evaluation пЃ® This section is required in order to give credit for the service learning project. пЃ± пЃ± What would you have done different? Do you think the child / family was receptive to your teaching?