close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

China - CoachFields

код для вставкиСкачать
Chapter 22 – China, Mongolia, and Taiwan
Section Notes
Video
Physical Geography
History and Culture of China
China Today
Mongolia and Taiwan
Impact of the Three Gorges Dam
Close-up
Beijing’s National Day
World Almanac
China’s Projected Urban
Population
Quick Facts
Chapter 22 Visual Summary
Maps
China, Mongolia, and Taiwan:
Political
Physical
Precipitation
China: Population
China’s Environmental Challenges
China, Mongolia, and Taiwan
Images
Geography
Focus on Culture: Chinese
Martial Arts
Chinese Farmers
Nomadic Life in Mongolia
Tensions between China and Taiwan
Physical Geography
The Big Idea
Physical features, climate, and resources vary across China,
Mongolia, and Taiwan.
Main Ideas
п‚· Physical features of China, Mongolia, and Taiwan include
mountains, plateaus and basins, plains, and rivers.
п‚· China, Mongolia, and Taiwan have a range of climates and
natural resources.
Main Idea 1:
Physical features of China, Mongolia, and
Taiwan include mountains, plateaus and
basins, plains, and rivers.
•
China is about the size of the United States.
•
China’s physical features include the world’s tallest
peaks, some of the world’s driest deserts, and its
longest rivers.
•
Mongolia is a landlocked country, dry and rugged with
vast grasslands and desert.
•
Taiwan is a green, tropical island off the coast of
mainland China.
Key Physical Features
Mountains
Other Features
• Much of this large
region is
mountainous.
• The Plateau of Tibet
is called the Roof of
the World.
• The Himalayas, the
world’s tallest
mountain range,
run along China’s
southwest border.
• The Taklimakan
Desert is a sea of
sand dunes and
blinding sandstorms.
• Other mountain
ranges in the
region include: the
Altay Mountains,
the Tian Shan, the
Kunlun Shan, and
the Greater
Khingan Range.
• The Turpan
Depression is China’s
lowest point.
• In Mongolia, the
Gobi is the world’s
coldest desert.
• The North China
Plain holds China’s
main farmlands.
Rivers
• The Huang He—or
the Yellow River—
flows across
northern China.
• Loess is a fertile,
yellowish soil.
• The Huang He is
often called China’s
Sorrow because its
yearly floods have
killed millions of
people.
• The Chang Jiang—
or Yangzi River—
flows across central
China.
Main Idea 2:
China, Mongolia, and Taiwan have a range of
climates and natural resources.
CLIMATE
1.
Southeast region
–
Tropical with warm to hot climate
–
Monsoons bring heavy rains in summer.
–
Typhoons strike the southeast coast in summer and fall.
2.
Northeast region
–
3.
Dry and cold climate
North and west region
–
Mainly dry climate
–
Temperatures vary and can get both very hot and cold.
Natural Resources
China
Mongolia
• Leading producer of coal, lead, tin, and
tungsten
• Valuable forestland and farmland
• Coal, iron, and tin
• Livestock
Taiwan • Farmland
History and Culture of China
The Big Idea
Ruled by dynasties in its early history, China is a Communist
country with an enormous population and ancient
traditions.
Main Ideas
• Family lines of emperors ruled China for most of its early
history.
• In China’s modern history, revolution and civil war led to a
Communist government.
• China has the world’s most people and a rich culture
shaped by ancient traditions.
Main Idea 1:
Family lines of emperors ruled China for
most of its early history.
Shang dynasty
• First recorded Chinese dynasty
• Strongest in the Huang He
valley
• Developed China’s first writing
system, a calendar, and
chopsticks
Zhou dynasty
• Longest-lasting Chinese dynasty
• Influenced by Confucianism,
Daoism, and Legalism
• Began using iron tools and
plows
Qin dynasty
• First dynasty to unite China
under one empire
• Greatest ruler was Shi Huangdi
• Created standardized money
and writing systems, built
network of roads and canals
and much of the Great Wall
Han dynasty
• Based government on
Confucianism
• Began trading over Silk Road
• Invented paper, sundial, and
acupuncture
Main Idea 2:
In China’s modern history, revolution and
civil war led to a Communist government.
•
Contact with the Western world exposed China’s people
to new ideas.
•
China’s people grew unhappy with imperial rule.
•
Their unhappiness sparked a revolution.
•
The Chinese revolution resulted in a violent civil war
between the Nationalists and the Communists.
•
The civil war ended in October 1949 with the
Communists as victors.
•
Mao Zedong became the head of China’s new
Communist government—the People’s Republic of China.
Communist China
Communist China under Mao
• Mao’s Communist government owned most businesses and
land and controlled all areas of life.
• Women gained more rights and were able to work.
• The government limited freedoms and imprisoned people who
criticized it.
• Many of the Communist economic programs were
unsuccessful.
Communist China since Mao
• Deng Xiaoping rose to power when Mao died in 1976.
• Some private businesses are allowed, and foreign countries
are encouraged to invest in China.
• Leaders after Deng have continued economic reforms.
Main Idea 3:
China has the world’s most people and a rich
culture shaped by ancient traditions.
• China has the world’s largest population.
• Almost all of China’s population is Han Chinese.
• Ancient religions, values, and beliefs shape life
for China’s many people, despite the fact that
the Communist government discourages the
practice of religion.
• China has a rich artistic tradition.
China’s People
Population and
Settlement
• China has the world’s
largest population: 1.3
billion people.
• Only 10 percent of China’s
people live in the west; the
remaining 90 percent live
in the east.
• China’s officials try to limit
population growth.
Ethnic Groups and
Language
• About 92 percent of
China’s millions of people
identify their ancestry as
Han Chinese. The
remaining 8 percent of
China’s population is
comprised of some 55
other ethnic groups.
• Mandarin is China’s official
language. However, many
people speak a dialect, a
regional variation of a
language.
Religion, Values, and Beliefs
• China’s two main belief systems are Daoism and Buddhism.
• Daoism stresses living simply and in harmony with nature.
• Buddhism is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama—the
Buddha.
• Many Chinese blend elements of Daoism and Buddhism with
Confucianism.
• Confucianism is a philosophy based on the ideas and teachings
of Confucius.
• Other major religions in China include Christianity and Islam.
• Ancestor worship and fortune-telling are also popular.
The Arts and Popular Culture
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chinese Crafts
– Items of bronze, jade, ivory, silk, wood, and porcelain
Chinese painting
– Focuses on balance and harmony with nature
– Calligraphy
Chinese literature
– Known for their poetry, which is highly valued
Chinese theater
– Traditional Chinese opera is popular
– Elaborate costumes and make-up
Chinese architecture
– Wooden buildings on stone bases
– Pagodas
– Many cities mix traditional with modern architecture.
Popular culture
– Martial arts and table tennis, mah-jongg, and karaoke clubs
China Today
The Big Idea
China’s economy and cities are growing rapidly, but the
Chinese have little political freedom and many
environmental problems.
Main Ideas
• China’s booming economy is based on agriculture, but
industry is growing rapidly.
• China’s government controls many aspects of life and
limits political freedom.
• China is mainly rural, but urban areas are growing.
• China’s environment faces a number of serious problems.
Main Idea 1:
China’s booming economy is based on
agriculture, but industry is growing rapidly.
China used to have a command economy, an economic
system in which the government owns all the businesses and
makes all decisions. In the 1970s China began allowing some
aspects of a market economy.
A mixed economic approach has helped China’s economy boom.
Today China has the world’s second largest economy. China is
mainly agricultural; however, industry is growing rapidly.
Although economic growth has improved wages and living
standards in China, many rural Chinese remain poor and
unemployment is high.
Agriculture and Industry
Agriculture
• More Chinese work in
agriculture than in any
other industry.
• China is a leading producer
of several crops.
• China’s main farmlands are
in the eastern plains and
river valleys.
• Only about 10 percent of
China’s land is good for
farming, but a large labor
force enables China to
produce a lot of food.
Industry
• Industry in China is
growing rapidly.
• China produces everything
from satellites and
chemicals to clothing and
toys.
• Industry and
manufacturing are the
most profitable part of
China’s economy.
Main Idea 2:
China’s government controls many aspects of
life and limits political freedom.
•
More economic freedom has not led to more political
freedom.
•
The government controls most areas of life, including
newspapers and Internet access.
•
China harshly punishes people who oppose the
government.
•
•
China takes harsh actions against ethnic rebellions.
•
•
Example: 1989 Tiananmen Square protests in Beijing
Example: Tibet
Some countries want to stop or limit trade with China
until it addresses these human rights issues.
Main Idea 3:
China is mainly rural, but urban areas are
growing.
Rural China
• Most of China’s people live in small, rural villages.
• Chinese farmers work the land using the same methods they have
used for decades.
• Many people are leaving China’s villages for its booming cities.
Urban China
• China’s growing economy has caused its cities to grow.
• Most of China’s cities are on the coast or along major rivers.
• China’s largest city is Shanghai, China’s leading seaport and an
industrial and commercial center.
• Beijing is the second largest city; it is China’s political and cultural
center.
• In southern China, Hong Kong and Macao are major port cities.
Main Idea 4:
China’s environment faces a number of
serious problems.
•
Economic and urban growth has created serious
environmental problems.
–
–
•
Pollution
Loss of forestland and farmland
The Chinese are working to address their environmental
problems.
–
Hydroelectric power (Three Gorges Dam)
Mongolia and Taiwan
The Big Idea
Mongolia is a rugged land with a nomadic way of life and
growing cities, while Taiwan is a densely settled and
industrialized island.
Main Ideas
• Mongolia is a sparsely populated country where many
people live as nomads.
• Taiwan is a small island with a dense population and a
highly industrialized economy.
Main Idea 1:
Mongolia is a sparsely populated country
where many people live as nomads.
Mongolia is home to the Mongol people, who have a
proud and fascinating history.
The Mongolian way of life remains fairly traditional,
despite years of Communist rule.
Although many Mongolians still live as nomads,
Mongolia is becoming more urban.
Mongolia’s History
•
Some 700 years ago Mongolia was perhaps the greatest power
in the world.
•
The Mongols conquered much of Asia, including China, and
built the greatest empire the world had seen at the time.
•
In the late 1600s China conquered Mongolia and ruled it for
more than 200 years.
•
With the help of Russia, Mongolia declared independence from
China in 1911.
•
Communists gained control of the country and in 1924 formed
the Mongolian People’s Republic.
•
Since the Soviet Union’s collapse in 1991, Mongolia has
struggled to build a democratic government and a free-market
economy.
Mongolia
Mongolian Culture
• Nearly half of Mongolia’s
people live as nomads.
• Nomads make their homes
in gers—large circular
tents that are easy to put
up, take down, and move.
• Mongolian culture highly
prizes horse skills.
Mongolia Today
• Mongolia is sparsely
populated.
• More than 25 percent of
Mongolia’s people live in
Ulaanbaatar, the capital
and only large city.
• Mongolia’s urban
population is slowly
growing.
• The main industries include
textiles, carpets, coal,
copper, and oil.
Main Idea 2:
Taiwan is a small island with a dense
population and a highly industrialized
economy.
The Chinese began settling Taiwan in the 600s.
At different times in history, both China and Japan have
controlled Taiwan.
In 1949 the Chinese Nationalists fled the Communists in China
and took over Taiwan.
Today Taiwan’s government is a multiparty democracy.
Although there is considerable tension between China and
Taiwan, Taiwan functions as an independent country.
Taiwan is a modern country whose rapid growth has spawned
serious overcrowding and environmental issues.
Tensions between China and Taiwan
China
Taiwan
• Considers Taiwan to
be part of China
• Claims to be China’s
true government
• Threatens force if
Taiwan declares
independence
• Growing movement
for independence
from China
• Officially recognized
by the United States
• Unofficially
recognized by the
United States
• Member of the
United Nations
• Unable to gain
membership in the
United Nations
Taiwan
Taiwan’s Culture
• About 85 percent of Taiwan’s population is native Taiwanese. These
people are descendants of Chinese people who migrated to Taiwan in
the 1700s and 1800s.
• Chinese ways dominate Taiwan’s culture.
• Because Japan once ruled Taiwan, Japanese culture can be seen
there.
• European and American practices are becoming noticeable in Taiwan.
Taiwan Today
• Taiwan is a modern country with about 23 million people.
• Most people live on the island’s western coastal plain.
• Taiwan’s two largest cities are Taipei, the capital, and Kao-hsiung,
the main seaport.
• Taiwan is one of Asia’s richest and most industrialized countries.
Click on the window to start video
Документ
Категория
Презентации
Просмотров
18
Размер файла
4 221 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа