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Chapter Seven India and China Establish Empires 400 B.C.

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Chapter Seven
India and China Establish Empires
400 B.C.-A.D. 550
pgs 189-207
Table of Contents
• Section One: India’s First Empires-pgs 189-192
• Section Two: Trade Spreads Indian Religions
and Culture-pgs 193-197
• Section Three: Han Emperors in China-pgs 200207
Section One:
India’s First Empires
пЃ¶Key Terms:
•
•
•
•
Religious Toleration
Gupta Empire
Patriarchal
Matriarchal
Mauryan Empire/ Chandragupta
Maurya
• Chandragupta Maurya gathered an army, killed the Nanda King
and claimed throne, which was the start of the Mauryan Empire.
• Unified North India; seized all land from Magadha to the Indus
• Began to battle Seleucus I around 305 B.C.
• Seleucus wanted to establish Macedonian control over the
Indus Valley
• Chandragupta defeated Seleucus
• Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000 miles; united
North India for the first time politically
• The government levied high taxes to clothe, feed, and
pay troops
• A bureaucratic government was formed and four
provinces were created with a royal prince to rule each
Asoka (Chandragupta’s grandson)
• Became king of Mauryan
Empire in 269 B.C.
• Followed grandfather’s
footsteps to expand
empire; waging war
• Victorious war against
Kalinga; 100,000 soldiers
slained and many civilians
perished
• Felt sorrow after victory
over Kalinga
• Began to study Buddhism
and started ruling by the
teachings of Buddha
“peace to all beings”
• After Asoka’s death,
kingdoms of central India
regained their
independence
• Andhras profited from the
extensive trade between
north and south India
• People migrated from parts
of Asia, introducing new
languages (Tamil) and
customs
• South India experienced
turmoil
(commotion/confusion)
Gupta Empire Established
• 500 yrs of invasion and commotion
• Gupta Empire (India’s 2nd empire)
• Chandra Gupta I’s empire included
Magadha and areas north of it
• Chandra’s son, Samudra expanded
the empire within 40 yrs with his
warlike attitude
• Majority of Indians were farmers (all
members worked in the fields)
• Drought was common, causing
farmers to irrigate crops
• Majority of the families were patriarchal (eldest man ran
the household)
• In South India, Tamil groups followed matriarchal
cultural pattern (mother was the head of the household)
• In the matriarchal culture, property and throne was
passed through the family line
• While the Gupta’s were in reign, India achieved in
several areas, including areas of art, religious thoughts
and science
• Hunas threatened North India
• Next 100 yrs included the Gupta Empire
into small kingdoms
• Empire ended around 535
Section Two:
Trade Spreads Indian Religions and Culture
пЃ¶Key Terms:
• Mahayan
• Theravada
• Stupa
• Brahma Vishnu
• Shiva
• Kalidasa
• Silk Roads
Buddhism & Hinduism Change
• 250 B.C., Hinduism & Buddhism were the two
major faiths of India
• Hinduism was dominated by priests
• Buddhism was the ideal of self- denial proved
difficult for others to follow
• Buddhists began to divide over the new
doctrines by the 1st century A.D.
• Those who accepted the doctrines, new
teachings, belonged to Mahayana sect
• Those who held Buddha original teachings
belonged to the Theraveda sect.
• The new trends inspired Indian art such as huge
statues of the Buddha for people to worship.
• Wealthy Buddhists merchants who eager to do
good deeds paid for the construction of stupas
(mounded stone structures built over holy relics)
• Buddhism and Hinduism
both were remote for the
people
• Hinduism developed a
complex set of sacrifices
by the time of the
Mauryan Empire that
were performed by the
priests
• Non-priests had a less
direct connection with
the religion
• Trend towards
monotheism began to
rise
3 Important Gods of Hindu
• Brahma-creator of the world
• Vishnu- preserver of the
world
• Shiva- destroyer of the world
Achievements in Indian Culture
• Southern India was high in literary tradition
• 2nd century A.D., city of Madurai became the
site of writing academics
• Drama was also a big addition to the culture
• Women and men traveled in Southern India to
put on shows in cities across the region
• Astronomy increased because the sailors on
trading ships used the stars to help them figure
out their location in the sea
• Modern numerical, the zero, and decimal
system were invented in India. The pi symbol
used in math was created by Aryabhata around
A.D. 500 and calculated the length solar years
Indian Trade Spread
• Rich in spices, diamonds,
sapphires, gold, pearls and
woods (ebony, teak, and
fragrant sandalwood)
• Trade between India
distanced as far as Africa
and Sumeria began more
than 4,000 yrs ago
• As trade increased, the rise
of banking in India
increased
• Interest rates that the
bankers had on loans to
merchants varied
depending on the
business
• Gupta Empire- sea trade
was no longer
considered dangerous
so interest rates were
only 15- 20 percent a
year
• Trades brought religions
to new regions, along
with Indian culture, art,
and other things
Section Three:
Han Emperors in China
пЃ¶Key Terms
• Han Dynasty
• Centralized government
• Civil service
• Monopoly
• Assimilation
Han Restore Unity in China
• Two powerful leaders emerged during the Civil
War
• Xiang Yu-aristocratic general; allowed the war
lords to keep their territories only if they
acknowledged him as the feudal lord
• Liu Bang - general of Xian Yu who eventually
went against him
• His goal was to destroy the king’s power while
using the centralized government (central
government controls the running of a state)
• They fought two battles and Bang won. In
result, he declared himself the emperor of the
Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
• Han Dynasty- ruled China for more than
400 years
• Influenced by China and still to this day
many of the Chinese societies call
themselves “people of Han”
• Bang Departed from Shi Huandi’s strict
legalism and lowered taxes and softened
harsh punishments
• Bang was appreciated by the people of
the empire due to the peace and stability
he brought amongst China
Highly Structured Society
• People accepted the emperor’s power because they
believed he passed a divine authority; a link between
heaven and earth
• If emperor completed his job well, their was peace and
riches; if not, earthquakes, floods, and famines occurred
• Government ruled on a complex bureaucracy
• Government levied taxes to raise money
• Peasants owed the government a month’s
worth of labor and paid taxes (merchants
paid taxes as well)
Han Technology, Commerce
and Culture
• Paper was invented in A.D. 105 and books were written
on silk before this invention
• Since paper was cheap, books became more available,
promoting China’s education
• Agriculture became the most important and honored
occupation because of the increase of population during
the Han Dynasty
• Monopolies (when a group has exclusive control over
the production and distribution of certain groups) were
established on the mining of salt, forging of iron, minting
of coins, and brewing of alcohol
The Han Unifies Chinese Culture
• Assimilation was encouraged by the Chinese
government posts process of making conquered
people part of the Chinese Culture)
• Sent farmers to settle colonized areas
• Schools were set up to train people in the
Confucian philosophy and scholars were
appointed to government posts
• Writers helped with the unification by
recording China’s history
• Sima Qian was called the Grand
Historian for his work for putting China’s
history in books from ancient dynasties to
Wudi (emperor of Han)
Women’s Roles:
wives, nuns, and scholars
• During the Han Dynasty, women were quiet and
lived their lives at home
• Women dedicated their lives to their families
based off of the Confucian teachings’ but they
worked in the fields as well
• Women with money held great power, earned an
education, ran shops , and practiced medicine
Political Instability Grows
• 32 B.C. to A.D. 9, inexperienced emperors replaced one
another, creating chaos in the palace
• Wang Mang - Confucian scholar and member of the
court took the imperial title for himself and overthrew
Hanin in A.D 9
• He decided that a strong rule was needed to restore
order and control
• Minted new money; set up public granaries to feed
China’s poor. Took away large landholdings from rich
and planned to give the land back to farmers who lost
their land
• Powerful landowners disagreed
• The wealthy gathered together to rebel against
Wang’s land policy
• A.D. 23, Mang was assassinated
• Soldiers and merchants were sent westward to
regain control of posts along the Silk Roads
• The same economic imbalance occurred in
China within a century after peace was restored
to China
• Han Dynasty divided into three rival kingdoms
by 220
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