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Changes and Continuities

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Changes and Continuities China
BY KARI ANDRESEN, ROSALIE GERBINO,
KUNAL KANG, ELEANOR MCCABE, NICHOLAS
WOODMAN
The Mnemonic Device
п‚— Quincey Has Ten Seats Yonder for My QuinceaГ±era .
(Qin Han Tang Song Yuan Ming and Qing)
8000 BC – 600 AD Political
п‚— -First dynasties built on river valleys
-Respect to the Middle Kingdom ruler
-Mandate of Heaven justifies political overthrow
-Dynastic cycle begins to rule Chinese life
-Feudalism develops due to large landholdings
-Warring States: Zhou ruled mostly as figurehead
-Confucius wanted bureaucratic gov't
-Centralized imperial rule
-Establishment of Confucian education system for
gov't service
-Yellow Turban Uprising
8000 BC – 600 AD Economic/Religious
п‚— -Huang He brought fertile soil
-Coined money
-Standardized measure and currency
-Land distributed into the hands of a few
-Indirect trade through the Silk Roads and sea routes
п‚— -Spirits of ancestors bring good fortune/disaster
-Kings consulted gods through oracle bones
-Mandate of Heaven - gods determined ruler
-Confucius wants harmony and peace through ethics
-Daoists want harmony and peace through nature
-Legalists want harmony and peace through efficient and
harsh rule
8000 BC – 600 AD Social
п‚— -Peasants live outside cities in hovel
-Peasants toiled for land nobles
-Family central in society, men good, women bad
-Respect for the family's elders
-Nobles were literate but peasants weren't
-Confucian ideal - 5 basic relationships
-Land seized from the nobles
-Visible gap between rich and poor
-One unified language
8000 BC – 600 AD Interactions/Arts
п‚— -Constantly waging war with other societies
-Large campaigns of imperial expansion
-Trade with foreign societies
-Cities surrounded with walls for protection
п‚— -Flood control and irrigation
-Cities built of wood
-Bronze tools
-Silk
-Iron metallurgy and textiles
600-1450 Political/Economic
п‚— - Mongols take over China in their reign.
-Region of China is called the Golden Horde, led by the infamous Kublai
Khan.
-The main dynasties during this time period include Tang, Song, Yuan and
the Ming.
-Each dynasty adopted the system of meritocracy, used the civil service
examinations, and gave jobs based on intelligence and merit rather than
corrupt reasons.
-Were bureaucratic as well.
-Tributary system between China with “lesser” areas such as Korea,
Vietnam, and more.
п‚— -Chinese use a system of credit as well as paper money (new technology)
rather than the traditional barter system (i.e I’ll give you my donkey for
some cheese).
-Tributary gifts from Korea and Vietnam.
-Champa rice - incredibly fast growing and led to a surplus of food (which
led to population increase) Helped build economy and specialized society.
600-1450 Religious/Social
п‚— -Confucianism is widely accepted/practiced and seemingly co-exists
with Buddhism.
-Daoists get jealous of Buddhism’s foothold in China and burn down
their temples stunting its growth a bit.
- Neo-Confucianism is known as the blend between both Buddhism
and Confucianism (more spiritual)
п‚— -Foot binding of women in upper classes
-Marriage is forbidden between Mongols and native Chinese. (As a
result they retain their unique cultures and don’t really mix)
-Cultural diffusion is everywhere, especially throughout trade routes
-Bubonic plague is spread along with ideas and various
technologies. Millions of people are wiped out and it spread from
Greece all the way to China.
-Literacy rate improves as well!
600-1450 Interactions/Arts
п‚— -Chinese desire to remain isolated still and feel that their country is
superior to others.
-However, through limited trade they had gained ideas of Buddhism and
others, while many of their technologies and innovations revolutionized the
world.
-Silk roads aided interactions.
-Korea, Japan, and Vietnam are tributary nations toward China.
-Also the Mongols help spread culture, ironically, by unifying as they
conquered.
п‚— -Major developments in all types of technologies and theories.
-Some specifics include paper, compass, money, math, science, astronomy,
the printing press, poetry, art, and transportation.
-Many of these originate from China and fall into the hands of the west who
take advantage of these items greatly for their growth/imperialism
1450-1750 Political/Economic
п‚— In 1450, the Ming Dynasty was almost a century old. From its foundation in
1368 to the early 1400’s, the Ming Dynasty had developed into a centralized
and militarily powered state. The 1600’s were a time of decline for the
Ming. Later rulers of the Dynasty were weak and allowed government to
decentralize and eventually fall apart. The Qing dynasty replaces the Ming.
п‚— Ming China was economically prosperous at its height. After Ming rulers
decided to have China withdraw into a period of isolation, trade was
restricted to 3 coastal ports – but many traders smuggle goods in exchange
for the European’s silver (most likely from American mines). In the 1600’s,
the sudden silver influx causes extreme inflation and the Ming suffers an
economic breakdown. The Chinese never industrialized because it went
against Confucian ideology and their love of agriculture. This backfires in
the 1600’s because the agricultural yields shrank and the Ming dynasty
suffers from extreme famine as well as extreme poverty.
1450-1750 Religious/Social
п‚— Confucian principles were revived during the Ming
Dynasty. Jesuit missionaries try to convert Chinese
to Christianity.
п‚— Populations grew steadily as China recovers from
wars and diseases of Yuan Empire in the early
1400’s. In the 1600’s the Ming Dynasty’s population
grew too fast for the land’s ability to support the
people leading to famine.
1450-1750 Interactions/Arts
п‚— During the Ming period, the 1st European traders began to arrive in
China. Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch try to establish ties with
Ming Emperor. China was too large for them to conquer so they
established embassies and trade houses. In the Early Ming period,
the rulers wished to impress the world with the power of the
Chinese so they sent Muslim sailor Zheng He on a series of
expeditions in order to increase the number of tributary states as
well as to awe the rest of the world. The government officials
eventually convinced the emperor to halt the expeditions and to
concentrate on the Chinese military. China entered a period of
isolationism. In the 1600’s the Manchu’s continual raids on
northern china eventually became too much for the Ming to handle.
 Ming China’s strengths in the early 15 and 1600’s were mostly
cultural: literature, fine “china” porcelain, and architecture.
1750-1914 Political
- Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) Manchus take over Ming China
- Adopted many traditional Chinese administrative policies from Ming Dynasty
- “Middle Kingdom”- Chinese ethnocentrism toward tributary states (Vietnam, Tibet,
Taiwan, Mongolia, Burma, Nepal, and Chinese central Asia)
- In the mid-1800s, China became the victim of many unequal treaties, undermining
Chinese sovereignty; Open Door Policy in 1899-spheres of influence
- Self-Strengthening Movement in 1860-1895 was an effort to stabilize China by
reasserting traditional Confucian culture while adopting and blending foreign
technology, but it didn’t work
- Hundred Days Reform of 1989- Emperor Guangxu intended to turn China into a
modern industrial power, until the Empress Dowager Cixi nullified the reforms
- Qing decline after a series of lost wars (Sino-French, Sino-Japanese, and both Opium
Wars) and social uprisings due to drought, famine, opium addiction, and foreign
oppression
- Qing Dynasty ended in 1911 in the Chinese Revolution when the boy emperor Puyi
was forced to abdicate his throne, and in 1912 Sun Yatsen established the Republic
of China
1750-1914 Economic/Religious
п‚— - Agriculturally-based economy of mostly a quick-growing strain of rice
from Vietnam
- Regulated Chinese cohongs traded with foreigners
- From the 1600s-1700s, Spanish and Portuguese traders brought maize,
sweet potatoes, and peanuts from the Americas
- Mainly accepted silver bars from its foreign merchants in Canton who
represented mostly Western nations where there was high demand for silk,
tea, porcelain, and lacquerware
- Opium Trade- introduced by British merchants in 1773, was high in
demand by 1838; caused social and economic problems, so the government
tried to repress/outlaw drug dealing
п‚— - European Christian missionaries tried to convert the Chinese to
Christianity by appealing to the Chinese imperial court
- Qing Dynasty continued Neo-Confucianism doctrines- a combination of
Buddhism religion and Confucian philosophy
1750-1914 Social/Interactions/Arts
п‚— - Manchus maintained Chinese social values such as social structure based on filial
piety and Confucian doctrine, and women inferiority and foot binding
- Famine and drought led to a population decline in China in the mid to late-1800s
- Opium trade had detrimental effects on Chinese society who became dependent on
opium, especially during a time of scarce food, starvation, and disease
- Taiping Rebellion- built on anti-Manchu sentiments, led by schoolteacher Hong
Xiuquan; -Boxer Rebellion- (1899-1901) Chinese Boxers led rebellion against
“foreign devils”
п‚— - China tried to maintain an isolationist foreign policy, only foreign trading in port
of Canton
- Sino-French War (1883) over possession of Vietnam (French Indochina), in which
France won
- Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) result- Japanese victory over the Liaotung
peninsula and Korea
- Opium Wars (first war: 1839-1842, second war: 1856-1860) ended in British
victory and the Treaty of Nanjing after China resisted Opium trade with British
merchants and refused to open ports for foreign importation
п‚— - Merchants and missionaries from Western from Western Europe try to impress
the Chinese with Western developments
1914-present Political/Economic/Religious
 • Dispute between Communists and Nationalists (Mao Zedong vs.
Sun Yatsen)
• Nationalists and Communists work together to fend off Japanese
and then communists took over after (Manchuria, Murkden
incident)
 • Land collectivization
• 5 year plans – succeeded and industrial outputs increased greatly
• Collectivist Farms
• Great Leap Forward – call for larger collective farms- failed and
hampered growth
 • New communist ideals challenged Confucian ideals due to new
equality
1914-Present Social/Interactions
 • Cultural Revolution
• Communist Ideals challenged Confucian ideals
• Made women fully equal
• Government took control of and owned many
companies, etc.
 • China overtakes Inner Mongolia, Tibet, etc.
• China at first received aid from Soviet Union but then
aid stopped because of territorial dispute and because
both countries wanted to be the leading communist
power in the world
Changes
 • Women’s equality as a result of communism
• Communism (challenged Confucian ideals) → 4
news and 4 olds
• Land collectivization – communes
• New equality between classes due to communism
• Absolute ruler → Mao – Marxism
• Losing power and technological innovation due to
isolationism
• Breaks in Chinese self rule (Mongols, Manchus,
European spheres of influence)
Continuities
 • Continues to overtake regions around it like Tibet
and Inner Mongolia, “Middle Kingdom”
• Maintained isolationist ideals
• Mandate of Heaven – transition of dynasties
adopted by communists to justify rise to power
• Demand for silk, tea (hot commodity)
• Surviving culture despite foreign invasion
(Manchus, Mongols, Europeans)
• Remained one united nation despite conflicts
• Confucian ideals remain prevalent in culture, able
to survive (Neo-Confucianism)
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