Culture and Values Frameworks Used to Characterize Cultures Class Outline вЂў Mini debate on the implications of cultural values in different economies вЂў Mini-lecture on Frameworks for assessing dimensions of culture вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Hofstede Bond Trompenaars Ronen & Shenkar What is culture? Umbrella term often used for differences in: вЂў etiquette (e.g. greetings) вЂў individual customs (e.g. routines for sleeping, bathing) вЂў ways of thinking Definition: the way people understand their world and make sense of it, a shared system of meanings. вЂў Culture is learned and imprinted (it is a collective phenomenon). Cultural programming deals with both values and practices. вЂў There are different layers of cultural programming: national culture, professional culture, corporate culture. Resolution вЂў Let it be resolved that distinct Chinese values explain the extraordinary growth rates of China Culture is Difficult to Study п‚§ Ethnic, religious, class, age and other sources of heterogeneity п‚§ Individual variation within groups п‚§ Danger of ethnocentric stereotypes п‚§ Intra-cultural vs. cross-cultural behaviour п‚§ Evolution as circumstances change вЂњMeasuringвЂќ Culture п‚§ Cultural differences can be inferred from data about a collectivity of people: п‚§ Direct measurement through asking well designed questions about peopleвЂ™s values or beliefs. п‚§ Data вЂњclusteringвЂќ methods п‚§ Matched samples can then be compared to discover similarities and differences. п‚§ At the individual level we speak of cultural attitudes and orientations (but these may not be representative of oneвЂ™s culture). Cultural Classifications п‚§ Hofstede п‚§ Bond п‚§ Trompenaars By and large, these classifications show similar dimensions and classify countries in the same clusters. п‚§ Ronen and Shenkar вЂ“ вЂњCountry ClustersвЂќ based on multiple studies Hofstede п‚§ A study of IBM employees in 50 countries. Studying values (вЂњthe broad tendencies to prefer certain states over othersвЂќ п‚§ Four dimensions п‚§ power distance п‚§ uncertainty avoidance п‚§ individualism/collectivism п‚§ femininity/masculinity Power Distance вЂў The extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally. вЂў A bottom-up view of power differences вЂў Large: Mexico, South Korea, India вЂў Small: U.S. Uncertainty Avoidance вЂў The extent to which members are intolerant of ambiguity and rely on formal rules вЂў A proxy for risk propensity and tolerance вЂў High (i.e. risk averse): Japan, Greece вЂў Low (i.e. risk taking): U.S., Hong-Kong Individualism/Collectivism вЂў The tendency of people to look after themselves and their immediate family versus belonging to groups or collectives and looking after each other in exchange for loyalty вЂў There is an association between collectivism and wealth per capita вЂў High individualism: U.S. вЂў High collectivism: China, Brazil, Venezuela Applications of PD & UA вЂў Small PD, Weak UA вЂў Examples: USA, UK вЂў Less formal rules, less вЂњunnecessary layers of hierarchyвЂќ. Control and coordination through mutual adjustment of people through informal coordination вЂў Small PD, Strong UA вЂў Examples: Israel, Austria, Germany вЂў Clearly defined rules and procedures without imposing strong hierarchy вЂў Large PD, Strong UA вЂў Examples: Japan, Korea, Portugal, Mexico вЂў Pyramids, clear authority lines вЂў Large Power Distance, Weak UA вЂў Examples: Singapore, Hong Kong вЂў Family structure. Allocation of duties, strong patriarch Masculinity/Feminity вЂў Values concerning work goals and assertiveness (masculinity) as opposed to personal goals (getting along, having friendly atmosphere) and nurturance (femininity). вЂў A proxy for assertiveness вЂў High: Brazil, Chile, Sweden вЂў Low: Japan, Mexico Bond: The Chinese Connection вЂў Confucian Dynamism Important: persistence ordering relationship by status and observing this order thrift having a sense of shame (sensitivity to social contacts) Less important: personal steadiness and stability protecting your face respect for tradition reciprocation of greetings, favors and gifts. Trompenaars вЂў Individualism versus collectivism вЂў Universalism versus particularism вЂў Neutral versus affective relationships вЂў Specific versus diffuse relationships вЂў Achievement versus ascription Universalism/Particularism вЂў Universalism is the belief that ideas and practices can be applied everywhere without modification. вЂў Universalistic: Germany, U.K. вЂў Particularism is the belief that circumstances dictate how ideas and practices should be applied. вЂў Particularistic: China, Hong-Kong, Venezuela Neutral vs. Affective вЂў A neutral culture is one where emotions are held in check (repressed) вЂў Neutral: Japan, U.K. вЂў An affective country is one in which emotions are openly and naturally expressed вЂў Affective: Mexico, Netherlands, Switzerland Specific Vs. Diffuse вЂў Public versus private spaces вЂў In specific cultures people tend to have a larger public area and small private area. They prefer to keep private life separate. вЂў Highly mobile; Separate work and private life вЂў Direct, open вЂў вЂњTo the pointвЂќ вЂ“ may appear abrasive вЂў In diffuse cultures the private space is usually larger while the public area is smaller and more guarded. People come across as cool initially the private space is more accessible. вЂў Low mobility; Work and private life closely linked вЂў Indirect, close and introvert вЂў Flexibility is very important Achievement vs. Ascription вЂў Achievement: people are accorded status based on how well they perform their functions. вЂў Achievement: U.K., Argentina вЂў An ascription culture in one in which status is attributed based on who or what a person is. вЂў Ascription: China Questions for Discussion вЂў What are the similarities and differences between the dimensions of uncertainty avoidance and universalism/particularism? вЂў What are the similarities and differences between masculinity/feminity and neutral/affective? вЂў What are the similarities and differences between power distance and achievement/ascription?