close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Ancient China

код для вставкиСкачать
South and East Asia
India, Korea & Japan
Ancient China
India after the Harappans
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Vedic civilization was a change in Indian
culture.
The Aryans adopted almost nothing of
Harappan culture. They built no cities, no states,
no granaries, and used no writing.
Instead they were a warlike people that
organized themselves in individual tribal, kinship
units, the jana.
http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCINDIA/ARYANS.HTM
Jana
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
The jana was ruled over by a war-chief. These
tribes spread quickly over northern India.
The basic social unit of Aryan culture, the jana,
slowly developed from an organization based on
kinship to one based on geography.
The jana became a janapada, or nation and the
jana-rajya , or tribal kingdom, became the janarajyapada, or national kingdom.
http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCINDIA/ARYANS.HTM
Rigvedic Period
пЃ®
пЃ®
The earliest history of the Aryans in India is
called the Rigvedic Period (1700-1000 BC) after
the religious praise poems that are the oldest
pieces of literature in India.
These poems, the Rig Veda, are believed to
represent the most primitive layer of IndoEuropean religion and have many characteristics
in common with Persian religion since the two
peoples are closely related in time.
http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCINDIA/ARYANS.HTM
Vedic Architecture
http://www.gosai.com/chait
anya/saranagati/html/vedicage_fs.html
Architecture, con’d
http://www.gosai.com/chaitanya/saranagati/html/vedic-age_fs.html
Hindu Castes
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
By the end of the Rigvedic period, social class had
settled into four rigid castes: the caturvarnas, or "four
colors."
At the top of the caturvarnas were the priests, or
Brahmans. Below the priests were the warriors or
nobles (Kshatriya), the craftspeople and merchants
(Vaishya), and the servants (Shudra), who made up the
bulk of society.
These economic classes were supported by an elaborate
religious system and would be eventually subdivided
into a huge number of economic sub-classes which we
call "castes.
http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCINDIA/ARYANS.HTM
Brahmanic Period
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Later Vedic Period or Brahmanic Period (1000-500 BC), the
Aryans migrated across the Doab, which is a large plain which
separates the Yamuna River from the Ganges.
It was a difficult project, for the Doab was thickly forested; the
Aryans slowly burned and settled the Doab until they reached the
Ganges.
While the Rig Veda represents the most primitive religion of the
Aryans during the Rigvedic Period, the religion of the Later Vedic
period is dominated by the Brahmanas, or priestly book, which
was composed sometime between 1000 and 850 BC.
Later Vedic society is dominated by the Brahmans and every
aspect of Aryan life comes under the control of priestly rituals
and spells.
http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCINDIA/ARYANS.HTM
Ancient Korea
пЃ®
Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom
пЃ®
пЃ®
Gojoseon was founded in 2333 BC by Dangun in
the basins of the Liao and Taedong Rivers, ruling
over northern Korean peninsula and southern
Manchuria.
Gojoseon was defeated by the Han dynasty of
China in 108 BC.
Gojoseon bronze artifacts
Three Kingdoms of Korea
пЃ®
The Three Kingdoms of Korea were
Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Kingdoms_of_Korea
Goguryeo tomb mural
The brick chamber of the tomb of King Muryeong
(r. 501-523) of the Baekje Kingdom (18 B.C.-A.D.
660)
Royal burial mounds at Gyeongju
(capital of Silla)
Timeline: Ancient China
Neolithic ca. 12000 - 2000 B.C.
Xia ca. 2100-1800 B.C.
Shang 1700-1027 B.C.
Western Zhou 1027-771 B.C.
Eastern Zhou 770-221 B.C.
770-476 B.C. -- Spring and Autumn period
475-221 B.C. -- Warring States period
Neolithic China
The Yangshao and the Lungshan
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
The Neolithic period began in China about 12,000 B.C.
However, good evidence of Neolithic settlements exists from
only about 4,000 B.C. The Neolithic lasted until about 2,000 B.C.
It is defined by a spread of settled agricultural communities, but
hunting and gathering was still practiced.
The largest concentration of agriculture was below the southern
bend of the Yellow River and millet was the main crop.
The geography of Neolithic China was different from today. It
was much wetter, with most of Northern China being lakes and
marshes and central China covered in an enormous lake. The
climate was warm and moist, rather than the colder, arid China
of today. The mountains were well forested and there was a
variety of animals.
Neolithic China
Neolithic Pottery
Xia Dynasty
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
For many years, the Xia Dynasty was thought to be a part of a
myth that the Chinese tell as part of their history.
The Xia Dynasty was in oral histories, but no archaeological
evidence was found of it until 1959.
Excavations at Erlitous, in the city of Yanshi, uncovered what
was most likely a capital of the Xia Dynasty.
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
The site showed that the people were direct ancestors of the Lungshan
and were predecessors of the Shang.
Radiocarbon dates from this site indicate that they existed from 2100 to
1800 B.C.
Despite this new archaeological evidence of the Xia, they are not
universally accepted as a true dynasty.
The Xia were agrarian people, with bronze weapons and pottery.
The ruling families used elaborate and dramatic rituals to
confirm their power to govern. The rulers often acted as
shamans, communicating with spirits for help and guidance.
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/ancient_china/xia.html
Shang Dynasty
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
The Shang, rather than the Xia, is considered by most to be the
first true dynasty of China.
Like the Xia, the Shang were originally considered to be a myth.
They were discovered because Chinese pharmacists were selling
oracle bones the Shang had created; the pharmacists sold the bones
as dragon bones.
The bones were first noticed in 1899 and by the 1920's were traced
to Anyang, where the last Shang capital was found and excavated.
In the 1950's an earlier Shang capital was found near present day
Zhengzhou.
Traditional Chinese history indicates that the Shang Dynasty
consisted of 30 kings and seven different, successive, capitals.
The Zhou, the dynasty that followed the Shang, are responsible for
the recordings of the kings and capitals of the Shang Dynasty.
Shang pottery
Earthenware
that was almost
porcelain, only
missing the
glaze.
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/ancient_china/shang.html
Shang Writing
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
One of the most important technological developments of the
Shang was the invention of writing.
They are the first group of people from China of which written
records are found. The most common place these writings are
found is on oracle bones used for divination.
The bones used for this purpose originally came from a number
of animals, but were eventually done exclusively on turtle shells.
A question was written on the bone, which was then fired and a
T shaped crack was produced which was interpreted, and the
interpretation was then written on the bone.
After the predicted event occurred, the date of the occurrence
was also written on the bone. Writing is also found on bronze
and stone, but the majority of the records have decayed as they
were recorded on bamboo strips.
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/ancient_china/shang.html
Oracle Inscriptions
Shang Religion
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
The Shang worshipped the "Shang Ti."
This god ruled as a supreme god over lesser gods, the
sun, the moon, the wind, the rain, and other natural
forces and places.
Highly ritualized, ancestor worship became a part of
the Shang religion.
Sacrifice to the gods and the ancestors was also a major
part of the Shang religion.
When a king died, hundreds of slaves and prisoners
were often sacrificed and buried with him. People were
also sacrificed in lower numbers when important
events, such as the founding of a palace or temple,
occurred.
Zhou Dynasty
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
The Zhou began as a semi-nomadic tribe that lived to the west
of the Shang kingdom.
Due to their nomadic ways, they learned how to work with
people of different cultures.
After a time, they settled in the Wei River valley, where they
became vassals of the Shang.
The Zhou eventually became stronger than the Shang, and in
about 1040 B.C. they defeated the Shang in warfare.
They built their capital in Xi'an. Part of their success was the
result of gaining the allegiance of disaffected city-states.
The Shang were also weakened due to their constant warfare
with people to the north.
Zhou Dynasty Art
Qin Dynasty
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
The Qin came to power in 221 B.C.
They were one of the western states that existed during the
Warring States Period.
They conquered the other Warring States, unifying China for the
first time.
Their leader named himself the First Emperor, or Shi huangdi,
thus beginning the tradition of having emperors for rulers.
The Qin, while not the most culturally advanced of the Warring
States was militarily the strongest.
They utilized many new technologies in warfare, especially
cavalry.
The Qin are sometimes called the Ch'in, which is probably where
the name China originated.
Qin Achievements
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
They standardized the language and writing of China, which had
varied greatly from area to area during the Warring States Period.
This was done partially out of a need to have a consistent way to
communicate across the country; administrators had to be able to
read the writing of the commanders to which they were sent.
Also, currency became standardized as a circular copper coin with
a square hole in the middle.
Measurements and axle length were also made uniform. This was
done because the cartwheels made ruts in the road, and the ruts
had to all be the same width, or carts with a different axle length
could not travel on them.
Also, a huge palace was built for Shi huangdi. The Qin are also
famous for the terra cotta army that was found at the burial site for
Shi huangdi. The army consisted of 6,000 pottery soldiers that
protected the tomb. They may be a replacement for the actual
people who had previously been buried with the rulers.
Tomb of Shi Huangdi
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/early_imperial_china/qin.html
Shi Huangdi
пЃ®
пЃ®
Located approximately 30 km outside of the presentday capital, X'ian (called Chang'an in ancient times), of
the Shensi province of modern China, the tomb of Qin
Shi Huangdi remains a symbol of the power and ego of
China's first Emperor.
Ascending to the throne of his clan, the Qin, at the age
of 13 in 246 BCE, Shi Huangdi immediately began
construction of his extraordinary mausoleum which
was completed soon after his death in 210 BCE, 36
years after the work commenced.
http://www.utexas.edu/courses/wilson/ant304/biography/arybios98/smithbio.html
View of Pit 1
http://www.anniebees.com/China/China_42.htm
Terra Cotta Soldiers
Soldiers and Cavalry
http://www.anniebees.com/China/China_42.htm
Horses with Chariot
http://www.anniebees.com/China/China_42.htm
Details
Archer from the tomb of Shi
Huangdi
Archer from the Back
Cavalryman, Tomb of Shi Huangdi
Shi Huangdi
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Shi Huangdi longed for a long life, so he sent his
ministers to go on quests to find a potion of
immortality.
The potions they brought back may have
contained arsenic and/or lead which probably
hastened his death.
After his death, the Han dynasty came to power.
Документ
Категория
Презентации
Просмотров
26
Размер файла
2 118 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа