Chinese Culture: Tradition and Change Marina Kravtsova, Maria Andrade, Anthony England, Whitney Haney HonorвЂ™s Colloquium, Oklahoma City University, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Which aspects of Chinese culture have remained constant? Which have changed? Four Aspects of Study: Food Idioms Poetry Music Food An Artistic & Scientific View Chinese view on food is deeply rooted in Confucianism and Taoism. Confucianism вЂў Elevated cooking to an art form. вЂў Established standards and appearance of cooking. вЂў Established proper table etiquette. Taoism вЂў Responsible for the development of the hygienic aspects of food and cooking. вЂў Concerned with the nutritional attributes of various foods. вЂў Focused on the medical value of foods. Western Influence Although there has been an increased in American fast-food chains in Chinese cities, traditional cuisine still remains an important part of Chinese society and primarily family life. Unlike some Western affairs that require people to eat quietly and quickly, Chinese gatherings are lengthy, noisy, and hospitable. Regional Cuisine China has many distinct styles of food based on geography, climate, resources, cooking methods, and lifestyle. Distinct Chinese cuisines are loosely divided into eight regions or вЂњEight Great TraditionsвЂќ: вЂў Anhui вЂў Cantonese вЂў Jiangsu вЂў Shandong вЂў Fujian вЂў Hunan вЂў Sichuan вЂў Zhejiang Idioms вЂў Chengyu: four-character phrases with culture-unique meanings вЂў Taught in schools to help students learn to write the characters вЂў Not influenced by other cultures вЂў Chinese people take pride in preserving own culture Examples of Chengyu Chinese Idiom English Translation з“њз”°жќЋдё‹ (guЕЌ tiГЎn lЗђ xiГ ) вЂњMelon Field Under PlumsвЂќ дёЂжЇ›дёЌж‹” (yД« mГ o bГє bГ ) вЂњNot Pull One HairвЂќ еЇ№з‰›еј№зђґ (duГ¬ niГє tГЎn qГn) вЂњPlay an Instrument for a CowвЂќ Story of з ґй‡њжІ‰и€џ (pГІ fЗ” chГ©n zhЕЌu) Poetry Chronological Progression of Traditional Styles Shi 750BCE Ci 450BCE Qu 1200CE Traditional Poetry вЂњNight ThoughtsвЂќ by Li Bai (730 BCE) I wake and moonbeams play around my bed Glittering like hoarfrost to my wondering eyes Upwards the glorious moon I raise my head Then lay me down and thoughts of home arise Contemporary Poetry вЂњThe AnswerвЂќ by Bei Dao (1976) Debasement is the password of the base, Nobility the epitaph of the noble. See how the gilded sky is covered With the drifting twisted shadows of the dead.... ...Let me tell you, world, I-do-not-believe! If a thousand challengers lie beneath your feet, Count me as number one thousand and one. I don't believe the sky is blue; I don't believe in thunder's echoes; I don't believe that dreams are false; I don't believe that death has no revenge. Contemporary Poetry вЂў From examining example of poetry, change is clearly evident вЂў Reasons for change: вЂ“ Entrance of English Romantic poetry in the 1920вЂ™s вЂ“ Demise of Dynastical system towards communist structure вЂ“ Intellectuals against the governmentвЂ™s actions begin to use poems to speak out against wrongs rather than create a form of art. Music п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў Early Chinese music was Confucius based. Music was viewed as a means of calming the passions and of dispelling unrest and lust, rather than a form of amusement. Traditional Chinese believed sound influenced the harmony of the universe. Older instruments were long zithers, flutes, panpipes, sheng (mouth organs), and percussion instruments such as clappers, drums, and gongs. Chinese music is as old as Chinese civilization. Instruments have been excavated from sites in all but not limited to the Shang, Chou, and Qin Dynasties. Shang Dynasty (1027 BCE) artifacts found: stone chimes, bronze bells, panpipes, and the sheng. Chou Dynasty (1027-256 BCE) music was one of the four required subjects of the sons of noblemen and princes. Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE) Music was seen as a wasteful past time. Timeline of Events п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў Dynastic times: Chinese opera, yayue (classical, elegant music of the imperial courts) 1900: English popular and Western classical music grew along with British influence over Chinese music 1920: Shidaiqu is started by Li Jinhui in the Republic of China. (Chinese folk, European jazz fusion) 1930: Shidaiqu converts to C-pop 1940: Communist Party of China labels c-pop as вЂњyellow musicвЂќ which meant obscene, sexual, pornographic, etc. Government censorship and control begins 1950: C-pop converts to mandopop and cantopop 1970: Mao Zedong and CPC evolve patriotic music into revolutionary music 1990: Prison song becomes Chinese Rock (Cui Jian initiated genre). Karaoke culture beings 2000: Punk Rock and Hip Hop begin to emerge in China. Three Major Schools of Chinese Music п‚Ў 1. Aimed at reviving the old thousand piece orchestra that once delighted ancient princes and sages and resisted the influence of Western music. п‚Ў 2. Exclusively Western Music п‚Ў 3. Pride in traditional Chinese music culture but acceptance of Western techniques of composition and performance. Chinese Genres Since 1912 вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Pop music: C-pop began with Shidaiqu, founded by Li Jinhui, with Western jazz influence. Because of the Communist PartyвЂ™s censorship the mainland remained on the sideline of Pop music while cantopop arose in Hong Kong, followed by mandopop in Taiwan. Despite ChinaвЂ™s population, the country is still not considered a lead producer of modern music. Since the end of the 20 th century, pop music in mainland China has started to gain popularity and even many Chinese, Taiwanese, and Hong Kong performers used their music for the 2008 Olympics in Beijing. Hip hop and Rap: Chinese Rap, Hong Kong hip hop, and Taiwanese hip hop Rock and heavy metal: Rock musicвЂ™s pioneer in Chinese culture was Cui Jian who first used the electric guitar and became the most famous performer of his musicвЂ™s generation. His music angered the government causing many of his concerts to be banned or cancelled and in 1989 he participated in the Tiananmen Square protests by playing with a red blindfold around his head as an action against the government. Western influence is also exemplified in the вЂњBlack PantherвЂ™sвЂќ (Hei BaoвЂ™s) first cd in which he used the English song вЂњDonвЂ™t Break My HeartвЂќ as a template for his own. Around 1995 Chinese metal/rock bands were influenced by groups like Korn, Limp Bizkit, and Linkin Park. Punk Rock: The first wave of punk rock in China came about in 1995, the second in 1997, both centered in Beijing. Revolutionary Music: Bordering cult status, this patriotic music has been the most government supported genre especially under pro-Communist leader like Mao Zedong. MusicвЂ™s Significance on Chinese Culture Because of mainland ChinaвЂ™s Communist censorship over music, piracy has become a huge issue in the music industry. 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Shang Gao. 3 December 2008. <http://www.shanggao.com/ images/river.jpg>. вЂњWoman with Birds.вЂќ No date. Online image. Chinese Poetry дёж–‡иЇ—жЊ. 3 December 2008. <http://www.arabicnadwah.com/ artgallery/zhao03.jpg>. Acknowledgements We would like to thank Dr. Regina Bennett, Dr. Virginia McCombs, and the HonorвЂ™s Department for giving us the wonderful opportunity to present our research to the public and to gather valuable experience for our future endeavors. Your guidance and encouragement has been greatly appreciated.