State Formation in East Asia Part 1: State Formation Theory What is a state? Social Evolution Static Models: Bandпѓ Tribeпѓ Chiefdomпѓ State Search for вЂњPrime MoversвЂќ Multivariate Models Part 1: State Formation Theory First-generation States Pristine versus Secondary East Asian Cases China, Korea, Japan (modern names used as convention) Part 2: State Formation in China Historiography and Archaeology History: Xia, Shang and Zhou Zhou conquered Shang circa 1046 BC Zhou ruler claimed descent from earlier вЂњXiaвЂќ polity Did Xia exist? Archaeology Erlitou Culture (ca. 1900-1500 BC) Longshan Neolithic Culture replaced in Yanshi region by Erlitou Bronze culture. Ceramic styles: variety пѓ uniformity Prestige goods: jade пѓ bronze Sites Associated with Erlitou Culture Archaeology Control of bronze and salt of great concern to Erlitou state Bronze requires supplies of copper, tin and lead. Erlitou derived copper and tin from Yangzi basin; Salt derived from southern Shanxi. Erlitou Site Near Yanshi on the Luo River; site discovered 1959. 2 palace structures on rammed earth platforms. Erlitou Site Erlitou Site Erlitou Site Erlitou Site Burials show social distinctions - stratification Large-scale construction projects Distribution control over bronze and salt Craft specialization Population increase Indications of formation of state by 1800 BC Erlitou State Urban sites placed near core region and in distant locations Dongxiafeng in southern Shanxi Panlongcheng in Yangzi River basin Served as hubs for transport of resources to core Placement of outposts related to location of material resources desired by core region Erlitou State State formation possibly catalyzed by ritual concerns, and/or charismatic leadership Expansion and control propelled by resource extraction, especially in metals and salt Does Erlitou = Xia (maybe; maybe not) But it is the first state to appear in central China Erligang Culture (circa 1600 вЂ“ 1400 BC) Culture named after type site near Zhengzhou. Major urban sites in core include walled cities at Zhengzhou and Yanshi. Yanshi appeared in late Erlitou period after decline of Erlitou site; it was a walled city with palace structures; Erlitou styles replaced by new types. Sites Associated with Erligang Culture Erligang Culture Zhengzhou вЂ“ center of Erligang polity Large walled city with bronze production facilities (production of ritual bronzes shifted to Zhengzhou) After 1400 BC the city declined, political center shifted to Xiaoshuangqiao 20 km to northwest Erligang Polity Built on and expanded foundation laid by Erlitou. Expanded geographically, especially into Yangzi basin; sought continuous extraction of resources Zhikaigou in north; Panlongcheng in south; Served as distant hubs for redistribution As in Erlitou, bronze was processed in outlying outposts, but production of ritual bronzes was limited to the political center. Shang and Zhou Some say Erlitou = Xia Some say Erligang = early Shang Anyang = late Shang Zhou conquered Shang in 1046 BC Later historical record is more accurate, but still problematic State Formation in China What prompted formation of Erlitou state? Peer interaction? Ritual concerns? State developed on basis of control over metal and salt; Monopoly of production/distribution of ritual bronzes. In Erligang period political core shifted to Zhengzhou, But this polity expanded on Erlitou model. Together they represent the formation and development of the first state in what is now China.