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Chapter Nineteen India, China, and Japan: From the Medieval to the

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Chapter Nineteen
India, China, and Japan:
From the Medieval to the Modern World
Culture and Values, 6th Ed.
Cunningham and Reich
The Mughal Empire
п‚ЈBabur (1483-1530), Akbar (1542-1605)
п‚ЈIndia as center of civilization
п‚ЈReligious freedom (Islam, Hindu)
п‚ЈUrdu language
п‚ЈArtistic blend of Hindu, Persian, and
Islamic elements
Mughal Art
п‚ЈMosques, palaces, walled cities, forts
п‚ЈIndian techniques, Arabic innovations
Dome, pointed arch, minaret
п‚ЈTaj Mahal at Agra (Shah Jehan)
Tomb, monument for Banu Begam
Mughal Art
Visual Arts
п‚ЈBook illustrations, miniatures
Realistic scenes from courtly life
п‚ЈPersian influences
Mughal Art
Babur’s Baba-nama (Turkish)
п‚ЈLiterary devotion of Homayun
Poetry (Persian)
п‚ЈMughal tolerance
Tulsi Das (1532?-1623)
The End of Mughal Rule
and the Arrival of the British
п‚ЈAurangzeb (1618-1707)
Islam vs. Hindu
п‚ЈBritish East India Trading Company
India as “Jewel in the Crown” of Britain
Controlled by British government by 1849
The Rise of Nationalism
India’s National Congress Party
Strife for self-rule
п‚ЈMohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)
п‚ЈNational literature
Prem Cand (1880-1936)
Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941)
Chinese Culture
Under Imperial Rule
п‚ЈCentralized government (1368-1911)
п‚ЈUntouched by Western influence
Port of Macao
Political and social stability
п‚ЈPopulation growth
Poverty, political unrest, revolution
The Arts Under the Ming Dynasty
п‚ЈPolitical, economic stability
п‚ЈCultural enrichment
п‚ЈNew literary genres
Stage plays
The Arts Under the Ming Dynasty
п‚ЈLandscape paintings
Human form in natural setting
п‚ЈArtistic attitudes
“change within tradition”
No distinctions between major art forms
Painted ceramicware, “China”
The Arts Under the Ming Dynasty
п‚ЈArchitecture tied to Confucianism
п‚ЈKublai Khan (c. 1216-1294)
Marco Polo (c. 1254-1324)
п‚ЈThe Forbidden City
South vs. North
Traditional symbolic values
The Qing Dynasty:
China and the Western Powers
п‚ЈKang Hsi (1654-1722)
Synthesized local, central administration
Introduced Western arts, education
Jesuit missionaries
п‚ЈCultural stagnancy
Basic technological methods
Old artistic formulas, Shitao’s Landscape
The Qing Dynasty:
China and the Western Powers
п‚ЈWestern Trade and Chinese Independence
п‚ЈOpium War (1839-1842)
п‚ЈInternal rebellions weakened government
Tai Ping Rebellion, Boxer Rebellion
п‚ЈRepublican Revolution
Sun Yat-sen
Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-tung
The Art and Culture of Japan:
Early Japanese History and Culture
п‚ЈCapital from Nara to Kyoto
п‚ЈShift from Buddhism to Shintoism
п‚ЈJapanese writing system, literature
Theater (no plays)
Murasaki’s novel Tale of Genji
Shonagon’s pillow-book
The Art and Culture of Japan:
The Period of Feudal Rule
п‚ЈKakamura (1185)
п‚ЈSamurai-dokoro, Shogun
Control of samurai
п‚ЈRise of the warrior class
п‚ЈAge of the Warring States (1467-1568)
Daimyo vs. Shogun
Introduction of firearms
The Art and Culture of Japan:
The Edo Period
п‚ЈRule of the Tokugawa family (1543-1868)
п‚ЈJapanese versions of landscapes
Gentler colors, heightened abstraction
п‚ЈInfluence of Western art
Peacocks and Peonies (1176)
п‚ЈWoodblock art
Hokusai Katsushika (1760-1849)
The Art and Culture of Japan:
The Edo Period
Basho’s Haiku
Buddhist, Zen Buddhist reflections
Crucial detail of landscapes
п‚ЈSaikaku, Life of an Amorous Woman
Overt eroticism, tales of homosexuality
п‚ЈMonzaemon, The Love Suicide at Amijima
Kabuki drama
Modern Japan:
The Meiji
п‚ЈCommodore Perry, trade with America
Mitsuhito’s “Enlightened Government”
Radical program of reform
Strong central government
Military program
Chapter Nineteen: Discussion Questions
п‚Ј To what extent did religious and cultural tolerance of the Moghal
empire affect the arts of the period? Explain, citing specific
examples. What was the effect of a loss of tolerance?
 What were the positive effects of China’s resistance to Western
cultural influences? How did the country’s isolation ultimately
serve to undo it political and social stability? Explain.
п‚Ј What was the function of art in Communist China? Explain.
п‚Ј What was the result of outside influence into Japanese culture
during the Period of Feudal Rule and beyond into the Meiji?
Consider the far-reaching effects (both positive and negative) of
this influence to the people and culture of Japan.
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