Chapter Nineteen India, China, and Japan: From the Medieval to the Modern World Culture and Values, 6th Ed. Cunningham and Reich The Mughal Empire п‚ЈBabur (1483-1530), Akbar (1542-1605) п‚ЈIndia as center of civilization п‚ЈReligious freedom (Islam, Hindu) п‚ЈUrdu language п‚ЈArtistic blend of Hindu, Persian, and Islamic elements Mughal Art Architecture п‚ЈMosques, palaces, walled cities, forts п‚ЈIndian techniques, Arabic innovations п‚¤Dome, pointed arch, minaret п‚ЈTaj Mahal at Agra (Shah Jehan) п‚¤Tomb, monument for Banu Begam Mughal Art Visual Arts п‚ЈBook illustrations, miniatures п‚ЈSecular п‚¤Realistic scenes from courtly life п‚ЈPersian influences п‚¤calligraphy Mughal Art Literature п‚ЈBaburвЂ™s Baba-nama (Turkish) п‚ЈLiterary devotion of Homayun п‚¤Poetry (Persian) п‚ЈMughal tolerance п‚¤Tulsi Das (1532?-1623) The End of Mughal Rule and the Arrival of the British п‚ЈAurangzeb (1618-1707) п‚¤Islam vs. Hindu п‚ЈSikhism п‚ЈBritish East India Trading Company п‚ЈIndia as вЂњJewel in the CrownвЂќ of Britain п‚¤Controlled by British government by 1849 The Rise of Nationalism п‚ЈIndiaвЂ™s National Congress Party п‚¤Strife for self-rule п‚ЈMohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) п‚¤Satyagraha п‚ЈNational literature п‚¤Prem Cand (1880-1936) п‚¤Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) Chinese Culture Under Imperial Rule п‚ЈCentralized government (1368-1911) п‚ЈUntouched by Western influence п‚¤Port of Macao п‚¤Political and social stability п‚ЈPopulation growth п‚¤Poverty, political unrest, revolution The Arts Under the Ming Dynasty п‚ЈPolitical, economic stability п‚ЈCultural enrichment п‚ЈConfucianism п‚ЈNew literary genres п‚¤Hua-Pen п‚¤Novels п‚¤Stage plays The Arts Under the Ming Dynasty п‚ЈLandscape paintings п‚¤Human form in natural setting п‚ЈArtistic attitudes п‚¤вЂњchange within traditionвЂќ п‚¤No distinctions between major art forms п‚ЈPainted ceramicware, вЂњChinaвЂќ The Arts Under the Ming Dynasty п‚ЈArchitecture tied to Confucianism п‚ЈKublai Khan (c. 1216-1294) п‚¤Marco Polo (c. 1254-1324) п‚ЈThe Forbidden City п‚¤South vs. North п‚¤Traditional symbolic values The Qing Dynasty: China and the Western Powers п‚ЈKang Hsi (1654-1722) п‚¤Synthesized local, central administration п‚¤Introduced Western arts, education п‚¤Jesuit missionaries п‚ЈCultural stagnancy п‚¤Basic technological methods п‚¤Old artistic formulas, ShitaoвЂ™s Landscape The Qing Dynasty: China and the Western Powers п‚ЈWestern Trade and Chinese Independence п‚ЈOpium War (1839-1842) п‚ЈInternal rebellions weakened government п‚¤Tai Ping Rebellion, Boxer Rebellion п‚ЈRepublican Revolution п‚¤Sun Yat-sen п‚¤Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-tung The Art and Culture of Japan: Early Japanese History and Culture п‚ЈCapital from Nara to Kyoto п‚ЈShift from Buddhism to Shintoism п‚ЈJapanese writing system, literature п‚¤Poetry п‚¤Theater (no plays) п‚¤MurasakiвЂ™s novel Tale of Genji п‚¤ShonagonвЂ™s pillow-book The Art and Culture of Japan: The Period of Feudal Rule п‚ЈKakamura (1185) п‚ЈSamurai-dokoro, Shogun п‚¤Control of samurai п‚ЈRise of the warrior class п‚ЈAge of the Warring States (1467-1568) п‚¤Daimyo vs. Shogun п‚¤Introduction of firearms The Art and Culture of Japan: The Edo Period п‚ЈRule of the Tokugawa family (1543-1868) п‚ЈJapanese versions of landscapes п‚¤Gentler colors, heightened abstraction п‚ЈInfluence of Western art п‚¤Peacocks and Peonies (1176) п‚ЈWoodblock art п‚¤Hokusai Katsushika (1760-1849) The Art and Culture of Japan: The Edo Period п‚ЈBashoвЂ™s Haiku п‚¤Buddhist, Zen Buddhist reflections п‚¤Crucial detail of landscapes п‚ЈSaikaku, Life of an Amorous Woman п‚¤Overt eroticism, tales of homosexuality п‚ЈMonzaemon, The Love Suicide at Amijima п‚¤Kabuki drama Modern Japan: The Meiji п‚ЈCommodore Perry, trade with America п‚ЈMitsuhitoвЂ™s вЂњEnlightened GovernmentвЂќ п‚¤Radical program of reform п‚¤Strong central government п‚¤Military program п‚¤Industrialization Chapter Nineteen: Discussion Questions п‚Ј To what extent did religious and cultural tolerance of the Moghal empire affect the arts of the period? Explain, citing specific examples. What was the effect of a loss of tolerance? п‚Ј What were the positive effects of ChinaвЂ™s resistance to Western cultural influences? How did the countryвЂ™s isolation ultimately serve to undo it political and social stability? Explain. п‚Ј What was the function of art in Communist China? Explain. п‚Ј What was the result of outside influence into Japanese culture during the Period of Feudal Rule and beyond into the Meiji? Consider the far-reaching effects (both positive and negative) of this influence to the people and culture of Japan.