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Mao Zedong: His Influence on Culture, Politics, and

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Georgia Performance Standards
• SS7H3 The student will analyze continuity
and change in Southern and Eastern Asia
leading to the 21st century.
• d. Describe the impact of communism in China
in terms of Mao Zedong, the Great Leap
Forward, the Cultural Revolution and Tiananmen
• e. Explain the reasons for foreign involvement in
Korea and Vietnam in terms of containment of
SS7CG7 The student will demonstrate an
understanding of national governments in
Southern and Eastern Asia.
a. Compare and contrast the federal republic of The
Republic of India, the communist state of The
People’s Republic China, and the constitutional
monarchy of Japan, distinguishing the form of
leadership and the role of the citizen in terms of voting
rights and personal freedoms.
b. What is the role of the citizen in autocratic, oligarchic,
and democratic governments?
c. What are the similarities and differences between
leadership, voting rights, and personal freedoms in the
Federal Republic of India, The People’s Republic
China, and Japan?
• SS7E8 The student will analyze different economic systems.
• a. Compare how traditional, command, market economies answer
the economic questions of (1) what to produce, (2) how to produce,
and (3) for whom to produce.
• b. Explain how most countries have a mixed economy located on a
continuum between pure market and pure command.
• c. Compare and contrast the economic systems in China, India,
Japan, and North Korea.
• SS7E10 The student will describe factors that influence
economic growth and examine their presence or absence in
India, China, and Japan.
• a. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital
(education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP).
• b. Explain the relationship between investment in capital (factories,
machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP).
• d. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.
Mao Zedong:
His Rise to Power
His Influence on Culture,
Politics, and Economics in
Mao Zedong
(Mao Tse-tung)
1893 - 1976
Dynastic Rule
• Powerful ruling families called dynasties
ruled China for about 4,000 years – from
about 2,000 BC to AD 1911.
• These rulers received the right to rule
through a Mandate from Heaven: as long
as they ruled justly, they would remain in
Dynastic Rule in China
The last of these
dynasties was the
Qing Dynasty
1644 – 1911
Shown here is the
last emperor, PuYi,
who came to the
throne at age 2.
Former Royal Residence
• Emperors lived in the
Forbidden City. This
complex was the imperial
palace and home to
twenty-four Chinese
emperors between the
years 1420 and 1911.
• The Forbidden City is now
known as the Palace
Museum and is open to
Beijing's visitors. In front
of the palace complex is a
large public square known
as Tiananmen Square.
Forbidden City
• The Forbidden City is the world's largest
surviving palace complex. It consists of 980
surviving buildings with 8,707 rooms. The
Forbidden City (forbidden to all but royalty) was
designed to be the center of the ancient, walled
city of Beijing.
• It is enclosed in a larger, walled area called the
Imperial City. The Imperial City is, in turn,
enclosed by the Inner City; to its south lies the
Outer City, the area open to everyday citizens.
Looking Down the Emperor’s
Bridge into the Forbidden City
Tower of the Forbidden City
Palace of Celestial Purity
In front of the Forbidden City is
Tiananmen Square, which became an
icon of freedom in 1989. This shot
was taken from inside the Tiananmen
Tiananmen Square Massacre
June 4, 1989
• About 100,000 students and workers were
protesting for freedom and democracy at
Beijing’s Tienanmen Square. 2,500 people died
according to the Chinese Red Cross, and 7,00010,000 people were injured. After that, the US
and EU announced an arms embargo on China.
Information about this incident is restricted in
China. This video is dedicated to the young
people of generations that followed as a
reference to the learning of their histories. It is
forbidden in China
Tiananmen Square - June 1989
End of the Qing Dynasty
• By the end of the 19th century, the Qing
dynasty had become very weakened by
both internal and external problems and
• Powerful warlords had taken over in
various areas of the country.
• Colonial powers were determined to carve
up China and weaken her through such
techniques as the Opium War.
China’s Descent
• By the late 19th century, China
had been weakened by weak
central rule, powerful warlords
and civil war, as well as
threats from other countries,
such as Japan, Russia, etc.
• In this 1890s cartoon, China
helplessly throws up her hands
as the United Kingdom,
Germany, Russia, France, and
Japan each try to carve a
piece of the Chinese pie,
showing the imperialist desires
of these countries toward a
weakened China.
Chinese Warlords Control China
The warlords
were powerful,
local cliques that
controlled China
from 1916 to the
1930s, during
the reign of the
last weakened
dynasty. They
were happy to
fight the
forces, as they
did not want to
lose their power
and lands.
Communist Threats
• In 1917, Communist
forces had overthrown
the royal family in Russia.
• China was the next
neighbor they set their
sights on.
• Leaders tried to set
up a nationalist
democratic government.
to fight the communist
Role Models – Lenin and Marx
People’s War
The Chinese Communist forces engaged in
what is called a People’s War. First, small
groups win the affection and trust of the
peasants in the countryside. They may help
with the harvesting, dig wells, etc. Thus,
they have local support to fight their
A People's war strategically avoids decisive
battles, since a tiny force of a few dozen
soldiers would easily be routed in an all-out
confrontation with the state. Instead, it favors
the strategy of long, drawn out warfare, with
carefully chosen battles that can realistically
be won.
• A revolutionary force conducting people's war
starts in a remote area with mountainous or
otherwise difficult terrain in which its enemy is
weak. It attempts to establish a local
stronghold among the peasants . As it grows
in power, it establishes other revolutionary
base areas and spreads its influence through
the surrounding countryside, where it may
become the governing power and gain popular
support through such programs as land
reform. Eventually it may have enough
strength to encircle and capture small cities,
then larger ones, until finally it seizes power in
the entire country.
Techniques of War used by Communists
• Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare
and combat with which a small group of
combatants use ambushes, raids, etc. to combat
a larger and less mobile formal army. The
guerrilla army uses ambush, stealth, and surprise
to draw enemy forces into terrain unfamiliar and
unsuited to them so that the enemy becomes the
defensive target.
• This term means "little war" in Spanish and
describes a conflict between armed civilians
against a powerful national army. These tactics
were used by the communist Viet Cong in the
Vietnam War. Today, most factions of the Iraqi
insurgency are said to be engaged in some form
of guerrilla warfare.
• Mobile warfare was another technique
used by Mao, who had a regular army
that was far too big to hide, but made a
point of retreating, conceding territory,
and avoiding battle until he was ready
to fight. The most notable example was
the Long March, in which Mao marched
in circles in until he had confused the
vastly larger armies pursuing him.
Long March of 1934-35
The Long March 1934
The Long March was a massive
military retreat undertaken by the Red
Armies of the Chinese Communist
Party, later the People’s Liberation
Army, to escape the Chinese
Nationalist Party army, led by
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.
There was not one Long March, but
several, as various Communist
armies in the south escaped to the
north and west in October of 1934.
The Communist Army was on the brink
of complete defeat by Generalissimo
Chiang Kai-shek’s troops in Jiangxi
province. The Communists, under the
eventual command of Mao Zedong and
Zhou Enlai, escaped in a circling retreat
to the west and north, which reportedly
traversed some 8,000 miles over 370
days, passing through some of the most
difficult terrain of western China by
traveling west, then north, to Shaanxi.
The Long March began the rise to
power of Mao Zedong, whose
leadership gained him the support of the
members of the party.
The Long March was survived by only one-tenth
of the 86,000 man force that left Jiangxi. Out of
this group, several leaders emerged, among
them Mao Zedong, who eventually became the
first chairman and head of the ruling Communist
Party of China in 1943 until his death in 1976.
Featuring Mao
as the New Hero
Mao as First
Chairman of
the Chinese
Cult of Personality
A cult of personality or personality cult
arises when a country's leader uses mass
media to create a heroic public image
through unquestioning flattery and praise.
Cults of personality are often found in
totalitarian government systems. It is
similar to general hero worship, except
that it is created specifically for political or
sometimes religious leaders.
Do you recognize these guys?
The Little Red Book
• Contained 427
quotes of Mao
• Studied in school
and workplace
• Reinforced the Cult
of Personality
The Mao “Must-Have”
• 6 billion copies printed
• Mao’s attempt to
change Chinese society
• All comrades had to
own, read and carry the
Little Red Book at all
times, especially during
the Cultural Revolution
Little Red Book
Photo of Mao and Lin Biao
Mao on Party Unity
• We must affirm anew the discipline of the Party,
• (1) the individual is subordinate to the
(2) the minority is subordinate to the majority;
(3) the lower level is subordinate to the higher
level; and
(4) the entire membership is subordinate to the
Central Committee
• Whoever violates these articles of discipline
disrupts Party unity and will be punished.
Mao on Women in Society
• With the completion of agricultural cooperation,
many co-operatives are finding themselves short
of labour. It has become necessary to arouse the
great mass of women who did not work in the
fields before to take their place on the labour
front.... China's women are a vast reserve of
labour power. This reserve should be tapped in
the struggle to build a great socialist country.
• Enable every woman who can work to take her
place on the labour front, under the principle of
equal pay for equal work. This should be done as
quickly as possible.
Mao on the Purpose of Art
[Our purpose is] to ensure that literature
and art fit well into the whole revolutionary
machine as powerful weapons for uniting
and educating the people and for attacking
and destroying the enemy, and that they
help the people fight the enemy with one
heart and one mind.
Propaganda Poster
"Take steel as the key link, leap forward in all fields"
Mao on Learning and Study
Reading is learning, but applying is also learning
and the more important kind of learning at that.
Our chief method is to learn warfare through
warfare. A person who has had no opportunity to
go to school can also learn warfare - he can learn
through fighting in war. A revolutionary war is a
mass undertaking; it is often not a matter of first
learning and then doing, but of doing and then
learning, for doing is itself learning.
(Intellectuals and educated people were distrusted
and often executed, as they disagreed with Mao.)
Mao on Revolution
• "Carry the Revolution Through to the End"
• A revolution is not a dinner party, or writing an
essay, or painting a picture, or doing
embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely
and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous,
restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an
insurrection, an act of violence by which one
class overthrows another.
Mao’s Great Leap Forward
• An economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1961
which aimed to rapidly transform China from a primarily
agrarian backward economy, dominated by peasant
farmers, into a modern agricultural and industrialized
communist society.
• Seized all private property and executed the wealthiest
peasants in all communities as enemies of the state.
• The Great Leap Forward is now widely seen – both
within China and outside – as a major economic failure
and great humanitarian disaster with estimates of the
number of people who starved to death during this
period ranging from estimated 20 to 43 million people
between 1959 and 1962.
Basic Concepts of the Great Leap
• Made grain and steel production top priority
Backyard steel furnaces (melted pots, pans, doors for scrap).
• Banished all religious institutions and ceremonies, replacing
them with forced political meetings
• Distrusted and purged all intellectuals (such as trained
engineers), thus making many poor decisions in terms of
ineffective infrastructure improvements
• Great Sparrow Campaign – killed off sparrows as pests, thus
causing a great environmental imbalance and huge locust
plague that year that destroyed much of the crops.
• Forced farmers to work at steel production, leading to failed
• Unfortunate drought and flooding so severe that mass deaths
and cannibalism occurred with failed harvests
Cultural Revolution 1966-69
• Struggle for power within the Communist Party that
resulted in wide-scale social, political, and economic
violence and chaos, which grew to include large sections
of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire
country to the brink of civil war.
• Reaction against intellectuals and anyone who disagreed
with Mao, as he feared losing power and control.
• Deng Xiaoping was an economic advisor and more open
to new ideas that were different from Mao’s. Deng was
sent to the countryside to be a common worker; his son
was thrown out of a 4th story window.
• Deng was rehabilitated after Mao’s death and became
leader of China from 1978-1990s.
Power to the Proletariat!
• In Communism, there are two classes –
proletariat (workers = good guys) and
bourgeoisie (upper class, factory owners,
intellectuals, etc.= bad guys)
• Purge or destroy the bourgeoisie and turn all
over to the common people (in reality, let the
government control everything
• Change comes through the violent class
struggle – Keep it going!
• Form the students into groups of Red Guards
who will attack the “Four Olds" of society, that is
what is believed to be old ideas, old cultures, old
habits, and old customs of China.
Red Guards and the Four Olds
Destruction of Chinese cultures and traditional values
• As a result of the Red Guards and their activities,
examples of Chinese architecture were ransacked,
Chinese literature and classics were burned in public,
Chinese paintings were torn apart, and antiquities were
• Many families' long kept genealogy were burned to
ashes. During that time, many ancient Chinese cultural
things were destroyed forever. People in possession of
these goods were punished. Intellectuals were targeted
as representatives of the Four Olds, and sometimes they
were mocked, harassed, imprisoned, tortured, or killed.
• Upon learning that Red Guards were approaching the
Forbidden City, Premier Zhou Enlai ordered the gates
shut and troops posted, knowing of the Red Guard's
reputation for destroying cultural objects.
Mao’s “We’ll completely pulverize and
destroy Deng Xiaoping” poster of the
1960s Cultural Revolution
Of Interest…
Historic picture taken in 1972, near the close of the Mao
Revolution, President Richard Nixon was the first US
president to visit the People’s Republic of China and begin
the process of normalization between the two countries.
Communist Command Economy
Under Mao
• Under Communism, China converted to a command
economy where there was no individual ownership and
the government had total control over the factors of
production: What to make, how to make it, for whom to
make it.
• Prices and products were determined by the state with
no concern for supply and demand or competition, as in
a free market economy.
• The Great Leap Forward had converted all peasant
farms to communal, under-producing state farms.
• Resulting problems = underproduction and lack of
motivation for production. China needed to find a way to
produce a surplus to sell and become economically
strong and to become a part of the global economy.
The New Way – Post Mao
• Mao’s pure command economy is rejected. They
called the new system “socialism with Chinese
characteristics” or a “socialist market economy.”
• Deng was responsible for these economic
changes, and he is credited with making China
one of the fastest growing economies!
• His ideas and programs lowered the poverty rate
from 53% under Mao to only 6% in 2001.
• There is movement toward mixed economy with
characteristics of free market, such as private
ownership of businesses.
Do You Know What This Is?
What Would Mao Say?!!
Wal-Mart Opens Its Fourth Store In Beijing
January 4, 2007 | By Editor
This is the fourth Wal-Mart store in Beijing, following the
opening of Sam'S CLUB Beijing in Shijingshan District
and two Wal-Mart supercenters which lie in Zhichun Road
and Xuanwumen, respectively.The Wal-Mart Jianguo
Road Supercenter is a one-floor shopping center which
provides approximately 20,000 kinds of goods.
This new Wal-Mart store will increase its offering of
cooked food in order to provide more benefits to whitecollar workers in the surrounding office buildings.
Entering the Chinese market in 1996, Wal-Mart has
operated more than 67 stores in 34 cities across China.
Now, that’s the Global Marketplace!
Beijing McDonald’s
Anyone for an
Egg McMao-ffin?
Modern Economic Reform in China
As of 2005, 70% of China's GDP is produced by private
ownership. Business are allowed to succeed or fail, based
on their ability to make a profit. The relatively small,
government-owned public sector is mostly in utilities
(water, gas, etc.) heavy industries, and energy production.
• Although some say this look like a return to capitalism,
Chinese officials have insisted that it is a form of socialism,
as this would discredit the entire idea of the Maoist
• Today there are few pure command economies that are
totally controlled by the central government: Cuba, North
Korea, Libya, and Myanmar.
The US Economy?
• People often describe the US economy as a
capitalist economy.
• Are we really a capitalist economy with a laissez
faire (government hands off!) structure?
• Can you think of ways that the government
interferes in the US economy?
– You might begin with the $700 billion Wall Street
– Think of the ways in which government influences
and Side Notes
of the
Maoist Revolution
in China
Chiang Kaishek – Chinese
Nationalist Leader Who Lost to Mao
• Forced to the island of
Taiwan when troops
defeated, weakened from
first fighting the
Japanese invaders, then
the communists.
• Fled to Taiwan, the
island off the coast of
mainland China, and
became first President of
Republic of China in
Domino Theory
The idea was the limitation
spread of communism.
• Following the fall of such countries as Russia and China
to the communists, then numerous countries in Eastern
Europe and Central Asia, the Free World envisioned the
possibility of a communist takeover of the Asian
continent – with the countries falling just like dominoes.
• The domino theory then became the reason for the US
(and other free counties) becoming involved in wars to
fight communism in Asia during the Cold War on such
battlefields as Korea and Vietnam.
Cold War Battlefield in Korea
• North Korea 1950-1953
• Helped South Korea fight
off North Korean communists
aided by Chinese and Russian
• Armistice signed in 1953
• Border between North and
South Korea was held at the
38th Parallel
• Was never a declared war by
Congress, but a “police action”
Cold War Battlefield in Vietnam
• Also known as the Second Indochina War
• French involved from 1950-54.
• US followed French with aid
and eventually troops until 1975.
• South Vietnam taken over by
Communist North Vietnam.
• Fall of Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh
City) and complete withdrawal
under President Gerald Ford.
Deng Xiaoping Rehabilitated
Vice Premier Deng and President and Mrs. Ford in 1975 in Peking
Deng Xiaoping was Chinese Premier from 1978 to 1989. He was a reform
leader who promoted stability and opening of China to foreign investment.
US Trade Deficit
with China
• Since 1985, the US has been running a trade
deficit with the People’s Republic of China,
meaning WE are in debt to them!
• In 1985, the deficit amounted to about $6 billion.
Now…think of how many items are labeled
“Made in China.”
• The 2009 trade deficit with China was over
$227 billion!
• Seems that China has become very successful
at being what we have wanted her to become: a
free market economy!
Human Rights in Modern China
пѓ� Personal freedom in China? Human Rights? NOT!!
пѓ� There we have a long way to go! The government is still
very much in control, and there have been few
improvements in personal rights and liberties.
пѓ� The media are always carefully supervised, just as during
the 2008 Olympics in Beijing.
пѓ� Forced relocations, one-child policy, and job losses and
punishment for disagreeing with government policies are
common occurrences.
пѓ� Unlike the democratic countries of Japan, India, and the US,
voting rights, free speech, freedom of religion, the rights
guaranteed citizens of a free country, are not yet a part of
China’s modernization.
Tiananmen Square Protests
There has been no
public reference to
the 1989 student
demands for
democracy in
which thousands
are believed to
have died and
been imprisoned.
Recordings of the
event are
forbidden in China.
Harry Wu – Political Activist
Harry Wu is an activist for human rights in the People’s
Republic of China
Wu’s family were landowners in China, but lost everything
in the Chinese Civil War. Now a resident of the US, Wu
spent 19 years in 12 different camps labor camps,
mining coal, building roads, clearing land, and planting
and harvesting crops. According to his own accounts, he
was beaten, tortured and nearly starved to death, and
witnessed the deaths of many other prisoners from
brutality, starvation, and suicide.
In 1995, Wu returned to China with a legal US
passport, was seized, held for 66 days, and
accused of stealing state secrets. He was
released because of so much international
attention to his cause and deported from China.
Tibetan Freedom Protests
Chinese security forces barricaded behind shields
in Lhasa, Tibet, after five days of anti-Chinese
demonstrations in March 2008. (See link for
Buddhist demonstrations against totalitarian
regime in Myanmar.)
China’s Economic Challenges
• Economic development has been more rapid in
coastal provinces than in the interior, and
approximately 200 million rural laborers and their
dependents have relocated to urban areas to find
work. (Why people live where they live!)
• One demographic consequence of the "one child"
policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly
aging countries in the world.
• Deterioration in the environment - notably air
pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the
water table, especially in the north - is another longterm problem. China continues to lose arable land
because of erosion and economic development.
From Mao Era
In the Mao era, heavy industry was
emphasized, with the government
supporting large infrastructure
projects and industries such as
steelmaking and heavy machine
making. Large factories were like
cities unto themselves, with hospitals,
schools, housing and cradle-to-grave
social programs for their workers.
Factory management and work units
in many ways served as local and
community government.
Industries were heavily subsidized
and profits were regarded as an unimportant consideration. The
production cost of some products
was three times their selling price!
To Modern Industrial State
• Today China is the world's largest producer of
steel, coal, cement, grain, cotton, meat and fish
and the world’s dominant manufacturer for a
wide range of products, including toys, fax
machines, sports shoes, furniture, laptop
computers and cameras.
• Chinese industrialization began with textiles,
and China remains the leading producer of
woven fabrics. Other major industries are
chemicals, electronics and armaments. Steel,
nonferrous metals, cement and chemicals suck
up 29 percent of China’s electricity.
• China is by far the world’s largest consumer and
producer of steel. It consumes and produces about
a third of the world’s steel, more than Japan,
Germany and the United States combined. Even
though it is the world’s largest producer it has to
import steel to meet its demand.
China’s Government Today
• Communist dictatorship, unitary
• Single party or party approved candidates
and groups
• President (Hu Jintao) is elected by the
National People’s Congress. Only
members of the Communist Party may be
elected or be a part of the Congress.
China Stats
PCGDP - $6,600.
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10.6%
industry: 46.8%
services: 42.6%
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 39.5%
industry: 27.2%
services: 33.2%
Food For Thought
21.5 million rural population live below the
official "absolute poverty" line (approximately
$90 per year); and an additional 35.5 million
rural population above that, but below the official
"low income" line (approximately $125 per year).
• China has the world’s largest labor force – over
813 million workers!
• These are some of the challenges of building a
market economy.
1) Describe the impact of communism in China in terms of
Mao Zedong, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural
Revolution and Tiananmen Square.
2) Explain the reasons for foreign involvement in Korea and
Vietnam in terms of containment of communism.
3) Compare and contrast the federal republic of The
Republic of India, the communist state of The People’s
Republic China, and the constitutional monarchy of
Japan, distinguishing the form of leadership and the role
of the citizen in terms of voting rights and personal
4) What is the role of the citizen in autocratic, oligarchic
(small powerful group), and democratic governments?
5) What are the similarities and differences between
leadership, voting rights, and personal freedoms in the
Federal Republic of India, The People’s Republic China,
and Japan?
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