Georgia Performance Standards вЂў SS7H3 The student will analyze continuity and change in Southern and Eastern Asia leading to the 21st century. вЂў d. Describe the impact of communism in China in terms of Mao Zedong, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution and Tiananmen Square. вЂў e. Explain the reasons for foreign involvement in Korea and Vietnam in terms of containment of communism. SS7CG7 The student will demonstrate an understanding of national governments in Southern and Eastern Asia. a. Compare and contrast the federal republic of The Republic of India, the communist state of The PeopleвЂ™s Republic China, and the constitutional monarchy of Japan, distinguishing the form of leadership and the role of the citizen in terms of voting rights and personal freedoms. b. What is the role of the citizen in autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic governments? c. What are the similarities and differences between leadership, voting rights, and personal freedoms in the Federal Republic of India, The PeopleвЂ™s Republic China, and Japan? вЂў SS7E8 The student will analyze different economic systems. вЂў a. Compare how traditional, command, market economies answer the economic questions of (1) what to produce, (2) how to produce, and (3) for whom to produce. вЂў b. Explain how most countries have a mixed economy located on a continuum between pure market and pure command. вЂў c. Compare and contrast the economic systems in China, India, Japan, and North Korea. вЂў SS7E10 The student will describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in India, China, and Japan. вЂў a. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP). вЂў b. Explain the relationship between investment in capital (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP). вЂў d. Describe the role of entrepreneurship. Mao Zedong: His Rise to Power His Influence on Culture, Politics, and Economics in China Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) 1893 - 1976 Dynastic Rule вЂў Powerful ruling families called dynasties ruled China for about 4,000 years вЂ“ from about 2,000 BC to AD 1911. вЂў These rulers received the right to rule through a Mandate from Heaven: as long as they ruled justly, they would remain in power. Dynastic Rule in China вЂў вЂў The last of these dynasties was the Qing Dynasty 1644 вЂ“ 1911 Shown here is the last emperor, PuYi, who came to the throne at age 2. Former Royal Residence вЂў Emperors lived in the Forbidden City. This complex was the imperial palace and home to twenty-four Chinese emperors between the years 1420 and 1911. вЂў The Forbidden City is now known as the Palace Museum and is open to Beijing's visitors. In front of the palace complex is a large public square known as Tiananmen Square. Forbidden City вЂў The Forbidden City is the world's largest surviving palace complex. It consists of 980 surviving buildings with 8,707 rooms. The Forbidden City (forbidden to all but royalty) was designed to be the center of the ancient, walled city of Beijing. вЂў It is enclosed in a larger, walled area called the Imperial City. The Imperial City is, in turn, enclosed by the Inner City; to its south lies the Outer City, the area open to everyday citizens. Looking Down the EmperorвЂ™s Bridge into the Forbidden City Tower of the Forbidden City Palace of Celestial Purity In front of the Forbidden City is Tiananmen Square, which became an icon of freedom in 1989. This shot was taken from inside the Tiananmen Gate. Tiananmen Square Massacre June 4, 1989 вЂў About 100,000 students and workers were protesting for freedom and democracy at BeijingвЂ™s Tienanmen Square. 2,500 people died according to the Chinese Red Cross, and 7,00010,000 people were injured. After that, the US and EU announced an arms embargo on China. Information about this incident is restricted in China. This video is dedicated to the young people of generations that followed as a reference to the learning of their histories. It is forbidden in China вЂў вЂў вЂў http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=7020744172733544165&ei=DhVg SbupH4H6qgLg7YW8BQ&q=Tienanmen+Square http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9-nXT8lSnPQ http://www.metacafe.com/watch/682560/tiananmen_square_massacre/ Tiananmen Square - June 1989 End of the Qing Dynasty вЂў By the end of the 19th century, the Qing dynasty had become very weakened by both internal and external problems and war. вЂў Powerful warlords had taken over in various areas of the country. вЂў Colonial powers were determined to carve up China and weaken her through such techniques as the Opium War. ChinaвЂ™s Descent вЂў By the late 19th century, China had been weakened by weak central rule, powerful warlords and civil war, as well as threats from other countries, such as Japan, Russia, etc. вЂў In this 1890s cartoon, China helplessly throws up her hands as the United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, France, and Japan each try to carve a piece of the Chinese pie, showing the imperialist desires of these countries toward a weakened China. Chinese Warlords Control China The warlords were powerful, autonomous, local cliques that controlled China from 1916 to the 1930s, during the reign of the last weakened dynasty. They were happy to fight the communist forces, as they did not want to lose their power and lands. Communist Threats вЂў In 1917, Communist forces had overthrown the royal family in Russia. вЂў China was the next neighbor they set their sights on. вЂў Leaders tried to set up a nationalist democratic government. to fight the communist threat. Role Models вЂ“ Lenin and Marx PeopleвЂ™s War The Chinese Communist forces engaged in what is called a PeopleвЂ™s War. First, small groups win the affection and trust of the peasants in the countryside. They may help with the harvesting, dig wells, etc. Thus, they have local support to fight their enemies. A People's war strategically avoids decisive battles, since a tiny force of a few dozen soldiers would easily be routed in an all-out confrontation with the state. Instead, it favors the strategy of long, drawn out warfare, with carefully chosen battles that can realistically be won. вЂў A revolutionary force conducting people's war starts in a remote area with mountainous or otherwise difficult terrain in which its enemy is weak. It attempts to establish a local stronghold among the peasants . As it grows in power, it establishes other revolutionary base areas and spreads its influence through the surrounding countryside, where it may become the governing power and gain popular support through such programs as land reform. Eventually it may have enough strength to encircle and capture small cities, then larger ones, until finally it seizes power in the entire country. Techniques of War used by Communists вЂў Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use ambushes, raids, etc. to combat a larger and less mobile formal army. The guerrilla army uses ambush, stealth, and surprise to draw enemy forces into terrain unfamiliar and unsuited to them so that the enemy becomes the defensive target. вЂў This term means "little war" in Spanish and describes a conflict between armed civilians against a powerful national army. These tactics were used by the communist Viet Cong in the Vietnam War. Today, most factions of the Iraqi insurgency are said to be engaged in some form of guerrilla warfare. вЂў Mobile warfare was another technique used by Mao, who had a regular army that was far too big to hide, but made a point of retreating, conceding territory, and avoiding battle until he was ready to fight. The most notable example was the Long March, in which Mao marched in circles in until he had confused the vastly larger armies pursuing him. Long March of 1934-35 The Long March 1934 Chiang The Long March was a massive military retreat undertaken by the Red Armies of the Chinese Communist Party, later the PeopleвЂ™s Liberation Army, to escape the Chinese Nationalist Party army, led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. There was not one Long March, but several, as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west in October of 1934. Mao The Communist Army was on the brink of complete defeat by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shekвЂ™s troops in Jiangxi province. The Communists, under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north, which reportedly traversed some 8,000 miles over 370 days, passing through some of the most difficult terrain of western China by traveling west, then north, to Shaanxi. The Long March began the rise to power of Mao Zedong, whose leadership gained him the support of the members of the party. The Long March was survived by only one-tenth of the 86,000 man force that left Jiangxi. Out of this group, several leaders emerged, among them Mao Zedong, who eventually became the first chairman and head of the ruling Communist Party of China in 1943 until his death in 1976. Propaganda Poster Featuring Mao as the New Hero Young Mao Mao as First Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party Cult of Personality A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise. Cults of personality are often found in totalitarian government systems. It is similar to general hero worship, except that it is created specifically for political or sometimes religious leaders. Do you recognize these guys? The Little Red Book вЂў Contained 427 quotes of Mao вЂў Studied in school and workplace вЂў Reinforced the Cult of Personality The Mao вЂњMust-HaveвЂќ вЂў 6 billion copies printed вЂў MaoвЂ™s attempt to change Chinese society вЂў All comrades had to own, read and carry the Little Red Book at all times, especially during the Cultural Revolution Little Red Book Photo of Mao and Lin Biao Mao on Party Unity вЂў We must affirm anew the discipline of the Party, namely: вЂў (1) the individual is subordinate to the organization; (2) the minority is subordinate to the majority; (3) the lower level is subordinate to the higher level; and (4) the entire membership is subordinate to the Central Committee вЂў Whoever violates these articles of discipline disrupts Party unity and will be punished. Mao on Women in Society вЂў With the completion of agricultural cooperation, many co-operatives are finding themselves short of labour. It has become necessary to arouse the great mass of women who did not work in the fields before to take their place on the labour front.... China's women are a vast reserve of labour power. This reserve should be tapped in the struggle to build a great socialist country. вЂў Enable every woman who can work to take her place on the labour front, under the principle of equal pay for equal work. This should be done as quickly as possible. Mao on the Purpose of Art [Our purpose is] to ensure that literature and art fit well into the whole revolutionary machine as powerful weapons for uniting and educating the people and for attacking and destroying the enemy, and that they help the people fight the enemy with one heart and one mind. Propaganda Poster "Take steel as the key link, leap forward in all fields" Mao on Learning and Study Reading is learning, but applying is also learning and the more important kind of learning at that. Our chief method is to learn warfare through warfare. A person who has had no opportunity to go to school can also learn warfare - he can learn through fighting in war. A revolutionary war is a mass undertaking; it is often not a matter of first learning and then doing, but of doing and then learning, for doing is itself learning. (Intellectuals and educated people were distrusted and often executed, as they disagreed with Mao.) Mao on Revolution вЂў "Carry the Revolution Through to the End" вЂў A revolution is not a dinner party, or writing an essay, or painting a picture, or doing embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another. MaoвЂ™s Great Leap Forward вЂў An economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1961 which aimed to rapidly transform China from a primarily agrarian backward economy, dominated by peasant farmers, into a modern agricultural and industrialized communist society. вЂў Seized all private property and executed the wealthiest peasants in all communities as enemies of the state. вЂў The Great Leap Forward is now widely seen вЂ“ both within China and outside вЂ“ as a major economic failure and great humanitarian disaster with estimates of the number of people who starved to death during this period ranging from estimated 20 to 43 million people between 1959 and 1962. Basic Concepts of the Great Leap вЂў Made grain and steel production top priority Backyard steel furnaces (melted pots, pans, doors for scrap). вЂў Banished all religious institutions and ceremonies, replacing them with forced political meetings вЂў Distrusted and purged all intellectuals (such as trained engineers), thus making many poor decisions in terms of ineffective infrastructure improvements вЂў Great Sparrow Campaign вЂ“ killed off sparrows as pests, thus causing a great environmental imbalance and huge locust plague that year that destroyed much of the crops. вЂў Forced farmers to work at steel production, leading to failed harvests. вЂў Unfortunate drought and flooding so severe that mass deaths and cannibalism occurred with failed harvests Cultural Revolution 1966-69 вЂў Struggle for power within the Communist Party that resulted in wide-scale social, political, and economic violence and chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to the brink of civil war. вЂў Reaction against intellectuals and anyone who disagreed with Mao, as he feared losing power and control. вЂў Deng Xiaoping was an economic advisor and more open to new ideas that were different from MaoвЂ™s. Deng was sent to the countryside to be a common worker; his son was thrown out of a 4th story window. вЂў Deng was rehabilitated after MaoвЂ™s death and became leader of China from 1978-1990s. Power to the Proletariat! вЂў In Communism, there are two classes вЂ“ proletariat (workers = good guys) and bourgeoisie (upper class, factory owners, intellectuals, etc.= bad guys) вЂў Purge or destroy the bourgeoisie and turn all over to the common people (in reality, let the government control everything вЂў Change comes through the violent class struggle вЂ“ Keep it going! вЂў Form the students into groups of Red Guards who will attack the вЂњFour Olds" of society, that is what is believed to be old ideas, old cultures, old habits, and old customs of China. Red Guards and the Four Olds Destruction of Chinese cultures and traditional values вЂў As a result of the Red Guards and their activities, examples of Chinese architecture were ransacked, Chinese literature and classics were burned in public, Chinese paintings were torn apart, and antiquities were shattered. вЂў Many families' long kept genealogy were burned to ashes. During that time, many ancient Chinese cultural things were destroyed forever. People in possession of these goods were punished. Intellectuals were targeted as representatives of the Four Olds, and sometimes they were mocked, harassed, imprisoned, tortured, or killed. вЂў Upon learning that Red Guards were approaching the Forbidden City, Premier Zhou Enlai ordered the gates shut and troops posted, knowing of the Red Guard's reputation for destroying cultural objects. MaoвЂ™s вЂњWeвЂ™ll completely pulverize and destroy Deng XiaopingвЂќ poster of the 1960s Cultural Revolution Of InterestвЂ¦ Historic picture taken in 1972, near the close of the Mao Revolution, President Richard Nixon was the first US president to visit the PeopleвЂ™s Republic of China and begin the process of normalization between the two countries. Communist Command Economy Under Mao вЂў Under Communism, China converted to a command economy where there was no individual ownership and the government had total control over the factors of production: What to make, how to make it, for whom to make it. вЂў Prices and products were determined by the state with no concern for supply and demand or competition, as in a free market economy. вЂў The Great Leap Forward had converted all peasant farms to communal, under-producing state farms. вЂў Resulting problems = underproduction and lack of motivation for production. China needed to find a way to produce a surplus to sell and become economically strong and to become a part of the global economy. The New Way вЂ“ Post Mao вЂў MaoвЂ™s pure command economy is rejected. They called the new system вЂњsocialism with Chinese characteristicsвЂќ or a вЂњsocialist market economy.вЂќ вЂў Deng was responsible for these economic changes, and he is credited with making China one of the fastest growing economies! вЂў His ideas and programs lowered the poverty rate from 53% under Mao to only 6% in 2001. вЂў There is movement toward mixed economy with characteristics of free market, such as private ownership of businesses. Do You Know What This Is? SamвЂ™s the Man! What Would Mao Say?!! Wal-Mart Opens Its Fourth Store In Beijing January 4, 2007 | By ChinaRetailNews.com Editor This is the fourth Wal-Mart store in Beijing, following the opening of Sam'S CLUB Beijing in Shijingshan District and two Wal-Mart supercenters which lie in Zhichun Road and Xuanwumen, respectively.The Wal-Mart Jianguo Road Supercenter is a one-floor shopping center which provides approximately 20,000 kinds of goods. This new Wal-Mart store will increase its offering of cooked food in order to provide more benefits to whitecollar workers in the surrounding office buildings. Entering the Chinese market in 1996, Wal-Mart has operated more than 67 stores in 34 cities across China. Now, thatвЂ™s the Global Marketplace! Beijing McDonaldвЂ™s Anyone for an Egg McMao-ffin? Modern Economic Reform in China вЂў As of 2005, 70% of China's GDP is produced by private ownership. Business are allowed to succeed or fail, based on their ability to make a profit. The relatively small, government-owned public sector is mostly in utilities (water, gas, etc.) heavy industries, and energy production. вЂў Although some say this look like a return to capitalism, Chinese officials have insisted that it is a form of socialism, as this would discredit the entire idea of the Maoist revolution. вЂў Today there are few pure command economies that are totally controlled by the central government: Cuba, North Korea, Libya, and Myanmar. The US Economy? вЂў People often describe the US economy as a capitalist economy. вЂў Are we really a capitalist economy with a laissez faire (government hands off!) structure? вЂў Can you think of ways that the government interferes in the US economy? вЂ“ You might begin with the $700 billion Wall Street bailout! вЂ“ Think of the ways in which government influences business. Consequences and Side Notes of the Maoist Revolution in China Chiang Kaishek вЂ“ Chinese Nationalist Leader Who Lost to Mao вЂў Forced to the island of Taiwan when troops defeated, weakened from first fighting the Japanese invaders, then the communists. вЂў Fled to Taiwan, the island off the coast of mainland China, and became first President of Republic of China in 1948. Domino Theory The idea was the limitation or CONTAINMENT of the spread of communism. вЂў Following the fall of such countries as Russia and China to the communists, then numerous countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Free World envisioned the possibility of a communist takeover of the Asian continent вЂ“ with the countries falling just like dominoes. вЂў The domino theory then became the reason for the US (and other free counties) becoming involved in wars to fight communism in Asia during the Cold War on such battlefields as Korea and Vietnam. Cold War Battlefield in Korea вЂў North Korea 1950-1953 вЂў Helped South Korea fight off North Korean communists aided by Chinese and Russian communists вЂў Armistice signed in 1953 вЂў Border between North and South Korea was held at the 38th Parallel вЂў Was never a declared war by Congress, but a вЂњpolice actionвЂќ Cold War Battlefield in Vietnam вЂў Also known as the Second Indochina War вЂў French involved from 1950-54. вЂў US followed French with aid and eventually troops until 1975. вЂў South Vietnam taken over by Communist North Vietnam. вЂў Fall of Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) and complete withdrawal under President Gerald Ford. Deng Xiaoping Rehabilitated Vice Premier Deng and President and Mrs. Ford in 1975 in Peking Deng Xiaoping was Chinese Premier from 1978 to 1989. He was a reform leader who promoted stability and opening of China to foreign investment. US Trade Deficit with China вЂў Since 1985, the US has been running a trade deficit with the PeopleвЂ™s Republic of China, meaning WE are in debt to them! вЂў In 1985, the deficit amounted to about $6 billion. NowвЂ¦think of how many items are labeled вЂњMade in China.вЂќ вЂў The 2009 trade deficit with China was over $227 billion! вЂў Seems that China has become very successful at being what we have wanted her to become: a free market economy! Human Rights in Modern China пѓ� Personal freedom in China? Human Rights? NOT!! пѓ� There we have a long way to go! The government is still very much in control, and there have been few improvements in personal rights and liberties. пѓ� The media are always carefully supervised, just as during the 2008 Olympics in Beijing. пѓ� Forced relocations, one-child policy, and job losses and punishment for disagreeing with government policies are common occurrences. пѓ� Unlike the democratic countries of Japan, India, and the US, voting rights, free speech, freedom of religion, the rights guaranteed citizens of a free country, are not yet a part of ChinaвЂ™s modernization. Tiananmen Square Protests There has been no public reference to the 1989 student demands for democracy in which thousands are believed to have died and been imprisoned. Recordings of the event are forbidden in China. Harry Wu вЂ“ Political Activist Harry Wu is an activist for human rights in the PeopleвЂ™s Republic of China WuвЂ™s family were landowners in China, but lost everything in the Chinese Civil War. Now a resident of the US, Wu spent 19 years in 12 different camps labor camps, mining coal, building roads, clearing land, and planting and harvesting crops. According to his own accounts, he was beaten, tortured and nearly starved to death, and witnessed the deaths of many other prisoners from brutality, starvation, and suicide. In 1995, Wu returned to China with a legal US passport, was seized, held for 66 days, and accused of stealing state secrets. He was released because of so much international attention to his cause and deported from China. Tibetan Freedom Protests Chinese security forces barricaded behind shields in Lhasa, Tibet, after five days of anti-Chinese demonstrations in March 2008. (See link for Buddhist demonstrations against totalitarian regime in Myanmar.) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2_EKx2KZ9A ChinaвЂ™s Economic Challenges вЂў Economic development has been more rapid in coastal provinces than in the interior, and approximately 200 million rural laborers and their dependents have relocated to urban areas to find work. (Why people live where they live!) вЂў One demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. вЂў Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the north - is another longterm problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. From Mao Era IndustryвЂ¦ вЂў In the Mao era, heavy industry was emphasized, with the government supporting large infrastructure projects and industries such as steelmaking and heavy machine making. Large factories were like cities unto themselves, with hospitals, schools, housing and cradle-to-grave social programs for their workers. Factory management and work units in many ways served as local and community government. вЂў Industries were heavily subsidized and profits were regarded as an unimportant consideration. The production cost of some products was three times their selling price! To Modern Industrial State вЂў Today China is the world's largest producer of steel, coal, cement, grain, cotton, meat and fish and the worldвЂ™s dominant manufacturer for a wide range of products, including toys, fax machines, sports shoes, furniture, laptop computers and cameras. вЂў Chinese industrialization began with textiles, and China remains the leading producer of woven fabrics. Other major industries are chemicals, electronics and armaments. Steel, nonferrous metals, cement and chemicals suck up 29 percent of ChinaвЂ™s electricity. вЂў China is by far the worldвЂ™s largest consumer and producer of steel. It consumes and produces about a third of the worldвЂ™s steel, more than Japan, Germany and the United States combined. Even though it is the worldвЂ™s largest producer it has to import steel to meet its demand. ChinaвЂ™s Government Today вЂў Communist dictatorship, unitary вЂў Single party or party approved candidates and groups вЂў President (Hu Jintao) is elected by the National PeopleвЂ™s Congress. Only members of the Communist Party may be elected or be a part of the Congress. China Stats PCGDP - $6,600. GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10.6% industry: 46.8% services: 42.6% Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 39.5% industry: 27.2% services: 33.2% Food For Thought вЂў 21.5 million rural population live below the official "absolute poverty" line (approximately $90 per year); and an additional 35.5 million rural population above that, but below the official "low income" line (approximately $125 per year). вЂў China has the worldвЂ™s largest labor force вЂ“ over 813 million workers! вЂў These are some of the challenges of building a market economy. Discussion 1) Describe the impact of communism in China in terms of Mao Zedong, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution and Tiananmen Square. 2) Explain the reasons for foreign involvement in Korea and Vietnam in terms of containment of communism. 3) Compare and contrast the federal republic of The Republic of India, the communist state of The PeopleвЂ™s Republic China, and the constitutional monarchy of Japan, distinguishing the form of leadership and the role of the citizen in terms of voting rights and personal freedoms. 4) What is the role of the citizen in autocratic, oligarchic (small powerful group), and democratic governments? 5) What are the similarities and differences between leadership, voting rights, and personal freedoms in the Federal Republic of India, The PeopleвЂ™s Republic China, and Japan?