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Chapter 31, Section
World Geography
Chapter 31
China
Copyright В© 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Chapter 31, Section
World Geography
Chapter 31: China
Section 1: The Emergence of Modern China
Section 2: Regions of China
Section 3: China's People and Culture
Section 4: China's Neighbors
Copyright В© 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Chapter 31, Section 1
The Emergence of Modern China
• What were the results of China’s early
contacts with Western powers?
• What conflicts within China have left the
country open to a Communist takeover?
• What were the purposes and results of
the program known as the Great Leap
Forward?
• How did a series of modernizations
attempt to change China?
Chapter 31, Section 1
Early Contacts With the West
• Lack of military technology was a serious
disadvantage in the 1800s, as industrialized
countries used their military strength to force their
way into China.
• Western powers carved China up into spheres of
influence, in which these countries had some
political and economic control, but did not govern
directly.
• Amid disagreement about the extent to which
Western culture should be adopted, the
Nationalist People’s party emerged as a political
force.
• The Nationalists seized power in 1911, forced the
emperor to abdicate, and then declared China a
republic.
Chapter 31, Section 1
A Struggle for Power
Chapter 31, Section 1
A Struggle for Power
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In the 1920s, a split developed in the Nationalists Party as
some members adopted Communist ideas.
When Nationalist President Chiang Kai-shek ordered the
Communists in the Nationalist party killed, they fled into
the mountains and were later pursued in the Long March.
In the 1930s, the Nationalists and Communists united to
fight against the Japanese.
After World War II, the Communists forced the
Nationalists to flee to Taiwan and renamed the country
the People’s Republic of China.
Chapter 31, Section 1
A Communist Nation
Mao Zedong wanted to increase productivity and replace private
ownership with common ownership.
The Great Leap Forward
• Collective farms were
combined into large-scale
People’s Communes that
contained both farms and
industries.
• Instead of increasing,
production fell, as the
communes offered no
incentive to work hard.
• Bad weather also hindered
production.
• The Great Leap Forward
was abandoned after two
years.
The Cultural Revolution
• After the failure of the Great
Leap Forward, Mao called
for even more drastic
measures.
• The Red Guard was formed
to destroy the Four Olds:
old ideology, old thought,
old habits, old customs.
• All those who disagreed
with Mao were punished.
• Farm and factory
production fell and schools
were closed, resulting in an
economic disaster for
China.
Chapter 31, Section 1
Modernization and Political Upheaval
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•
•
•
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Deng Xiaoping began the Four Modernizations
program, intended to improve agriculture, industry,
science, and technology.
The contract responsibility system allowed farmers to
sell surplus crops, resulting in dramatically increased
farm output.
The focus of industry changed to light industry, or the
manufacture of consumer goods, and a system of
rewards was established to increase productivity.
Economic growth was uneven, with the coastal cities
growing rich but the interior lagging behind.
As economic reform continued, some Chinese
demanded political freedom.
The government responded harshly to the Tiananmen
Square protests, killing many demonstrators, and
rounding up suspected leaders for execution.
Chapter 31, Section 1
Section 1 Review
What was the result of the Great Leap Forward?
a) Agricultural output vastly increased.
b) Industrial output increased modestly.
c) Production fell dramatically.
d) There was no noticeable result.
How did Deng increase agricultural output?
a) He completely privatized land ownership.
b) He created even larger collective farms.
c) He punished farmers who were not producing enough crops.
d) He allowed farmers to sell surplus crops.
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Chapter 31, Section 1
Section 1 Review
What was the result of the Great Leap Forward?
a) Agricultural output vastly increased.
b) Industrial output increased modestly.
c) Production fell dramatically.
d) There was no noticeable result.
How did Deng increase agricultural output?
a) He completely privatized land ownership.
b) He created even larger collective farms.
c) He punished farmers who were not producing enough crops.
d) He allowed farmers to sell surplus crops.
Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
Chapter 31, Section 2
Regions of China
• In the past, how has China’s Northeast
region served as the center of population,
industry, and government?
• Why is the Southeast region of China
ideal for agriculture and transportation?
• In what way did the Silk Road promote
development of China’s barren Northwest
region?
• What effect has Communist rule had on
China’s Southwest region?
Chapter 31, Section 2
The Northeast
• The Northeast has formed China’s core for
centuries, containing the capital Beijing and the
greatest concentration of China’s population.
• The Northeast was the site of one of the world’s
original culture hearths, centered on the Huang He.
• Beijing is a major industrial center, but the Special
Economic Zones have been so successful that
investment money is going south.
• The Northeast has an agricultural area made fertile
by wind-blown loess from Mongolia and the Gobi
Desert.
• The Huang He serves as a transportation route, but
has also created so much destruction through
flooding that it is called “China’s Sorrow.”
Chapter 31, Section 2
The Southeast
• The climate and fertile soil of the Southeast allow
farmers in some areas to practice double
cropping, or growing more than one crop a year
on the same land.
• The Yangzi valley is the location of China’s most
productive farmland, and the river serves as an
east-west highway connecting the interior with the
coast.
• The government has set up Special Economic
Zones in this region to lure foreign investment
and technical expertise with low tax rates.
• Many have migrated to the Southeast to benefit
from the economic boom the region is
experiencing.
Chapter 31, Section 2
The Northwest
Chapter 31, Section 2
The Northwest
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•
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•
•
The Northwest is dry,
barren, and rugged.
Population in the region is
low.
The Silk Road crossed
Northwest China, and way
stations developed around
oases along the road.
Some way stations
eventually developed into
towns.
In the oasis towns, people
live by farming, but
nomadic herding is the
major economic activity in
the region.
Chapter 31, Section 2
The Southwest
• The Plateau of Tibet, the highest region in the
world, dominates the Southwest Region.
• Tibet has a distinctive society based on the
Buddhist religion.
• For most of their history, Tibetans have lived as
farmers and herders under the theocratic leader
the Dalai Lama.
• China invaded Tibet in 1950, and the Dalai Lama
was driven into exile.
• After an uprising in 1959, the Chinese government
instituted a policy designed to destroy Tibetan
culture and later, designated Tibet an autonomous
region.
• Tibetans still hold onto their traditions and culture
despite efforts by the Chinese government.
Chapter 31, Section 2
Section 2 Review
What makes the Southeast attractive to foreign investors?
a) The country’s capital is located there.
b) The Special Economic Zones offer tax breaks.
c) The Southeast is sparsely populated.
d) China has designated it an autonomous region.
What has contributed to the growth of towns in the Northwest?
a) The region is rich in mineral resources.
b) Farmland in the region is excellent.
c) Garrisons were established in the Northwest to defend the
frontier.
d) Way stations developed at oases along the Silk Road.
Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
Chapter 31, Section 2
Section 2 Review
What makes the Southeast attractive to foreign investors?
a) The country’s capital is located there.
b) The Special Economic Zones offer tax breaks.
c) The Southeast is sparsely populated.
d) China has designated it an autonomous region.
What has contributed to the growth of towns in the Northwest?
a) The region is rich in mineral resources.
b) Farmland in the region is excellent.
c) Garrisons were established in the Northwest to defend the
frontier.
d) Way stations developed at oases along the Silk Road.
Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
Chapter 31, Section 3
China’s People and Culture
• Through the years, how has China’s
Communist government changed its
attitudes about population growth?
• What factors create a common culture
throughout China, encouraging unity
across the nation?
Chapter 31, Section 3
A Huge Population
Chapter 31, Section 3
A Huge Population
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•
•
•
Mao believed that power
lay in numbers, so he
encouraged the Chinese
people to have more
children.
After finally recognizing
the problems of
overcrowding, Mao called
for a two-child policy.
Deng set a one-child goal,
offering rewards and fines
to encourage people to
follow this policy.
Propaganda did not
convince rural Chinese to
follow the policy, because
contract responsibility
shifted production to
family labor.
Chapter 31, Section 3
Chinese Culture
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•
•
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•
About 56 ethnic minority groups live in China, but 92 percent
of China’s population belong to the Han ethnic group.
The written form of Chinese uses ideograms, or pictures
representing a thing or idea, and all Chinese students are
taught Chinese characters.
Daoism is based on the writings of Laozi, who wrote that the
path to true happiness lies in living in harmony with the
natural world.
Confucianism is a philosophy based on the teachings of
Confucius, who believed that society functions best if people
respect the laws and behave according to their positions in
society.
China is officially an atheist state, but many people continue to
practice their religions.
Although Western medicine is practiced in China, many prefer
traditional Chinese medicine, which includes the use of herbal
remedies, breathing exercises, special diets, and acupuncture.
Chapter 31, Section 3
Section 3 Review
What result did Mao’s population policy have?
a) China’s population remained stable.
b) The Chinese population shrank and standards of living rose.
c) Urban populations remained stable, but rural populations
exploded.
d) China’s population exploded, resulting in overcrowding.
How does a common system of writing affect Chinese culture?
a) People across China can always communicate in writing.
b) The Chinese writing system encourages minorities to rebel.
c) The writing system has no effect upon Chinese culture.
d) The common writing system encourages conformity.
Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
Chapter 31, Section 3
Section 3 Review
What result did Mao’s population policy have?
a) China’s population remained stable.
b) The Chinese population shrank and standards of living rose.
c) Urban populations remained stable, but rural populations
exploded.
d) China’s population exploded, resulting in overcrowding.
How does a common system of writing affect Chinese culture?
a) People across China can always communicate in writing.
b) The Chinese writing system encourages minorities to rebel.
c) The writing system has no effect upon Chinese culture.
d) The common writing system encourages conformity.
Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
Chapter 31, Section 4
China’s Neighbors
• How did Taiwan become an industrial
power in Asia?
• In what way does Hong Kong’s
relationship with China make Hong
Kong’s future uncertain?
• How has the standard of living in
Mongolia improved in recent years?
Chapter 31, Section 4
Taiwan: A World Apart
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•
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•
•
Chiang Kai-shek fled to Taiwan and set up a temporary
provisional government that was repressive but allowed free
enterprise to flourish.
The Nationalist government in Taipei was recognized as the
legitimate government of China until 1971, when mainland
China was admitted to the UN and Taiwan was expelled.
The Nationalists instituted a sweeping land-reform program to
put land in the hands of tenant farmers and encouraged them
to modernize their farming practices.
The Nationalists also encouraged industrial development, and
with the help of foreign investment Taiwan experienced rapid
growth.
Taiwan has in recent years concentrated on high-technology
industries such as electronics, and rapid economic growth has
led to a high standard of living.
Contact between China and Taiwan was renewed in 1987, but
relations between the two remain tense.
Chapter 31, Section 4
Hong Kong Returns to China
The Growth of Hong Kong
• In 1898, Britain forced
China to agree to lease
Hong Kong.
• Hong Kong’s location and
harbor helped the port
become a center of trade.
• Hong Kong also became a
center of manufacturing,
specializing in textiles and
electrical appliances.
• The exodus of refugees
from China provided a vast
supply of labor for the
factories of Hong Kong.
• Hong Kong’s trade is
estimated at the same value
as that of China.
The End of the Lease
• Hong Kong developed with
little interference from the
mainland.
• The British lease ended in
1997, and Hong Kong was
returned to China.
• Fears of political
repression after the
handover have not come to
pass.
• China follows a policy of
“one country, two systems”
to allow Hong Kong’s
economy to flourish.
Chapter 31, Section 4
Mongolia
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•
•
•
•
Mongolia is a vast, dry land, with desert in the south and
steppe in the north.
Under Genghiz Khan and his descendants, the Mongols
ruled a huge empire, but Mongolia eventually became a
Chinese province.
Mongolia remained a province of China until 1911, ten
years later adopted communism, and then held democratic
elections in the early 1990s.
Herding still ranks as the major economic activity on
Mongolia’s steppes, but the country is also developing
some industries.
With industrialization, Mongolia has become more urban,
with 63 percent of the population living in urban centers.
Many Mongolians still live as nomads, but are becoming
increasingly connected to the world through modern
technology.
Chapter 31, Section 4
Section 4 Review
Which of the following contributed to Taiwan’s economic
success?
a) rich natural resources
b) strategic location
c) vast oil deposits
d) foreign investment
Which of the following helped Hong Kong become a leader in
world trade?
a) It has a central location and a deep natural harbor.
b) It was already a manufacturing center.
c) China invested heavily in Hong Kong.
d) Special Economic Zones were established in China.
Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
Chapter 31, Section 4
Section 4 Review
Which of the following contributed to Taiwan’s economic
success?
a) rich natural resources
b) strategic location
c) vast oil deposits
d) foreign investment
Which of the following helped Hong Kong become a leader in
world trade?
a) It has a central location and a deep natural harbor.
b) It was already a manufacturing center.
c) China invested heavily in Hong Kong.
d) Special Economic Zones were established in China.
Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here!
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