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China: A Nation Closed Off… Essential Question: What are the key

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China:
A Nation Closed Off…
Essential Question:
What are the key characteristics of
the Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan (Mongol
Empire) and Ming Dynasties?
Geography ***PG. 167***
п‚— 4-7-1
-after Han collapsed, people started to invade all areas of China
and blended with traditional Chinese culture—more people
identified themselves as Chinese
-North: people grew wheat, barley, grains
-South: rice (warmer and wetter climate)
-farming increased because new irrigation techniques
(*PG. 171)
-fast-ripening rice meant two-three crops in one season
-more time meant more crops (cotton and tea)
Trade & Economy
п‚— 4-7-2
-agricultural surpluses paid government taxes
-population is at 100 million by Song Dynasty (960)
-Chang’an was capital during Tang (618) and is largest city in the world at
that time
-trade along the Grand Canal
-exports: tea, rice, spices, jade, silk (secret), porcelain
-imports: foods, plants, wool,
glass, gold, silver
-paper money in the 900s!!!
Politics & Government: HAN DYNASTY
п‚— 4-7-1
-Han Dynasty falls:
-before fall, Han Dynasty was based on Confucianism and was
culturally and educationally advanced (some Chinese people still
refer to themselves as “people of the Han”)
-Period of Disunion from 220-589
-cultural blending throughout all of China (population increase)
Politics & Government : SUI DYNASTY(Sway) *589618*
-Period of Disunion ended in 589
-Yang Jian (Yang Jee-en) conquered south and unified China (later named Wen Di,
which means “Civic” or “polished” emperor)
-started Grand Canal (links Yellow River and Yangzi River)
-made improvements to Great Wall
-he and his son were harsh--forced peasants who couldn’t pay taxes to fight in army or
work on civic projects (increased size of palace…needed over 1 million
workers…40%died…civic???)
-Wen Di was Buddhist, but supported Buddhism,
Confucianism, and Daoism in order to unite people
-civic projects helped unite people
Politics & Government: TANG DYNASTY
*618-907*
-Sui official overthrew government and started Tang
-expanded China’s land
-considered golden age of China (art, culture)
-Empress Wu (*PG. 168*)
-China’s only woman ruler
-husband was sick and died-she decided her sons were not
worthy to rule—if people opposed her then they faced death —brought
stability (did not like Buddhism…why not?)
Politics & Government: TANG Cont’d.
-Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism grew (Buddhism a
little too much…)
-big government had power and not local
-government had division of labor
-“equal-field system” (each male was given an
amount of acreage and paid taxes based on the
amount, so a peasant could potentially gain more
land, status, and wealth…)
•4-7-2
-inventions (woodblock printing, gunpowder, magnetic
compass)
-lasted over 300 years
-disorder again (from 907-960)…
Politics & Government: SONG DYNASTY
*960-1279*
-50 years of civil war before someone took charge in south because north was
being overrun by foreigners
-Age of Buddhism (impacted art, culture, literature)
п‚—4-7-3
-Neo-Confucianism gained popularity as government needed order (blended
societal roles with spiritual outlook, less focus on issue of desire and more on )
-merchants gained power with increased trade
-bureaucracy, civil service, and scholar-officials *PG. 178*
-paid to work in the government
-spent years studying for several exams
-few passed, but if they did they got respect, reduced
penalties for law-breaking
п‚—4-7-2
п‚—-inventions (moveable type, paper money *PG. 175*)
п‚—
Politics & Government: Mongol Empire (Yuan
Dynasty)
*1260-1368*
-PG.
181
4-7-4
-led by Genghis Khan in 1206
-brutal ruler (killed men, women, children)
-ruled most of Asia, and then conquered northern
China by his death in 1227
-grandson Kublai Khan takes over after 40 years of fighting
Chinese Dynasty) *PG. 187 (Yuan Dynasty 1260-1368)*
(only
non-
-completes Chinese conquest
-emperor in 1279
-Mongols seen as rude and uncivilized (different language,
customs, gods) barbarians!
-Khan did not force ideas on Chinese, but did force
high taxes (public works projects completed by
Chinese workers)
Politics & Government: Mongol Empire Cont’d.
-Social Classes were very important:
-1st class: tax-free Mongols
-2nd class: non-Chinese civil servants
-3rd class: Northern Chinese
-4th class: Southern Chinese
-Khan believed in traditional shamanism (good and evil spirits heard through
priests), but allowed Chinese people to keep their beliefs
-Marco Polo (Italian trader who served on Khan’s court and wrote about
Khan’s trade)
-invaded Japan 1274 and 1281-weather caused failure…remember this for
Japan!
-Mongols were weak (battles destroyed farmland and people) and Chinese
rebelled and regained control in 1300s
п‚— 4-7-1
Religion: Buddhism
-Buddhism (Buddha): Sadartha Ghatma
-eight-fold path and four noble truths
-Nirvana (desire nothing worldly)
-brought from India during Han Dynasty
-people turned to it during Period of Disunion
-began to blend with Confucianism and Daoism
Religion: Confucianism
-Confucianism (Confucius):
-Kong Fu Zi (first called Confucius by Europeans)
-focused on ethics
-two principles (ren: concern for others & li:
appropriate behavior)
-ruler to ruled should be like parent to child
(respect and obedience)
-lost influence to Buddhism (Confucianism focused
on roles in society and Buddhism offered on an escape
from suffering)
-Neo-Confucianism (mixed government and
spirituality)
Religion: Daoism
-Daoism (Laozi):
-“the way” or “the path”
-man should focus on
relationship with nature
-balance in life (yin and yang)
Society & Culture
4-7-2
-People with power and wealth wanted
to show their wealth (royal courts, flaunt wealth)
--It was believed feet binding came from ancient
courts of the Song and Tang (a princess with a club
foot, or elegant dancers with small feet)
-(women from wealthy families who did not need them to
work could afford to have their feet bound)
-Women would have their feet at age of 2-5 soaked in
Water, their toes pushed back as far as possible until
Broken, then held as tight as possible to their heel to
Eliminate their arch. This process would be repeated
To keep the foot bound for life.
3 inch shoes ideal
Science & Technology *PG. 174*
п‚— 4-7-2
-paper money by 900s as a result of trade growth
-art, poetry, clay
-woodblock printing (transfer printing from carved wood to paper)
-gunpowder
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