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History and Culture of China

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History and Culture of China
CHAPTER 26 SECTION 2
 I. China’s early history
п‚Ў A.
Early civ. was one of the most advanced
in world
п‚Ў B. Many inventions
пѓ·1. magnetic compass
4. printing
пѓ·2. gun powder
5. silk
пѓ·3. paper
6. fireworks
C. 4,000 year old civilization
D. China’s dynasties
1. dynasty: a series of rulers from the
same family line
2. most of history ruled by dynasties
3. rulers called emperors
4. between dynasties kingdoms and
warlords fought for power
пѓ·5.
sometime ruled by invaders
6. Qin (Ch’in) dyn. one of most impt.
п‚ўa. 1st to unite China under 1 empire
п‚ўb. Great Wall built
п‚ўc. Shi Huangdi had thousands of terra
cotta soldiers made to guard his tomb
пѓ·7.
Qing last dynasty
E. Outside influences in China
1. often had limited contact w/outside
world (superior culture and little use for
foreigners)
2. outsiders wanted tea and silk
пѓ·3.
Europeans in 1800s forced China to
open up and controlled parts
пѓ·4. Chinese angry and blamed emperor
пѓ·5. some western ideas adopted
 II. China’s Modern History
п‚Ў A.
Revolution and civil war
пѓ·1. 1911 last emperor forced out of power
пѓ·2. China became a republic
пѓ·3. two rival groups fought for power
п‚ўa. Nationalist led by Chiang Kai-Shek
п‚ўb. Communist led by Mao Zedong
пѓ·4.
violent civil war ended in 1949 with
communist as victors (nationalist fled to Taiwan)
B. Communist China under Mao
1. communist system-gov’t owned most
businesses and land and controls all
areas of life.
пѓ·2. Mao took control of economy
п‚ўa. seized all private farms and
organized them into lg, state-run
п‚ўb. took over all businesses and factories
п‚Ў 3.
Positive and negative changes
пѓ·a. women more rights; able to work
пѓ·b. freedoms limited and ppl imprisoned
if criticized gov’t
пѓ·c. unsuccessful economic programs
(millions died from famine in 1960s)
п‚Ў C.
Communist China since Mao
1. Mao died 1976 – Deng Xiaoping next
leader
пѓ·2. Deng worked to modernize and
improve China’s economy
п‚ўa. some private business
п‚ўb. encouraged foreign investment
пѓ·3. leaders after Deng encouraged
economic reforms
 III. China’s People and Culture
п‚Ў A.
1.3 billion ppl – world’s lgest pop.
п‚Ў B. Population and settlement
пѓ·1. 10% in west
пѓ·2. 90% packed in east
пѓ·3. pop continues to grow (7.5 million/yr)
a. gov’t tries to slow growth
п‚ўb. ppl encouraged to wait to have
children and to only have one
п‚Ў C.
Ethnic groups and language
пѓ·1. 92% Han Chinese
п‚ўa. share same culture and traditions
b. many speak Mandarin (China’s
official language)
п‚ўc. others speak a dialect or regional
version of a language
пѓ·2.
55 other ethnic groups
п‚ўa. most live in western and southern
China
п‚ўb. have own distinct culture
п‚Ў D. Religion, values and beliefs
пѓ·1.
religious practices discouraged by gov’t
п‚Ў 2.
Daoism
п‚ўa. ppl live simply in harmony with
nature
b. Dao means “the way”
п‚Ў 3.
Buddhism
пѓ·a. came from India in AD 100
пѓ·b. based on teaching s of Siddhartha
Gautama
пѓ·c. believe in moral behavior, kindness
and meditation
пѓ·4.
Daoism and Buddhism blended with
Confucianism
п‚ўa. a philosophy based on ideas and
teachings of Confucius
п‚ўb. stresses impt of family, moral values
and respect for elders
пѓ·5.
other religions
п‚ўa. Christianity
п‚ўb. Islam
п‚ўc. ancestor worship
п‚ўd. fortune telling
п‚Ў E.
пѓ·1.
Arts and popular culture
crafts made from
п‚ўa. bronze
п‚ўb. jade
п‚ўc. ivory
п‚ўd. silk
п‚ўe. wood
п‚ўf. porcelain (highly prized)
пѓ·2.
traditional painting
п‚ўa. done on silk or fine paper
п‚ўb. focus on balance and harmony with
nature
п‚ўc. landscapes most popular
п‚ўd. often includes calligraphy
(decorative writing)
п‚ўe. some feature calligraphy only
пѓ·3.
known for poetry
п‚ўa. highly valued
п‚ўb. appears on paintings
п‚ўc. also novels and plays
пѓ·4.
opera is popular
п‚ўa. tells stories through spoken words,
music and dance
п‚ўb. wear elaborate costumes and
makeup that have special meanings
пѓ·5.
traditional architecture
п‚ўa. wooden bldgs w/stone bases
п‚ўb. lg tiled roofs curve upward at edge
п‚ўc. pagodas: Buddhist temples that
have multi-storied towers w/ an upward
carving roof at each floor
пѓ·6.
popular culture
п‚ўa. sports
п‚ўb. martial arts
п‚ўc. table tennis
п‚ўd. mah-jongg
п‚ўe. karaoke clubs
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