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7.3 Han Emperors in China

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7.3 Han Emperors in China
The Han Restore Unity in China
пЃ®
Troubled Empire
• In the Qin
Dynasty the
peasants resent
high taxes and
harsh labor, and
rebel.
The Han Restore Unity in China
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Liu Bang Founds the Han Dynasty
• Liu Bang defeats Xiang Yu, a rival for power,
and founds the Han Dynasty
• The Han Dynasty begins about 202 B.C. and
lasts about 400 years.
• Han Dynasty has great influence on Chinese
people and culture
• Liu Bang establishes centralized government—
a central authority rules.
• Liu Bang lowers taxes and reduces
punishments to keep people happy
Depiction of Emperor Liu Bang
The Han Restore Unity in China
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The Empress LГј
• Liu Bang dies in 195 B.C.; wife Lü
seizes control of empire
• Empress Lü rules for her young son
and outlives him.
• There are palace plots and power
plays occur throughout Han
Dynasty
The Han Restore Unity in China
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The Martial Emperor
• Liu Bang’s great-grandson Wudi
rules from 141 to 87 B.C.
• “Martial Emperor” Wudi defeats
Xiongnu (nomads) and mountain
tribes
• Colonizes Manchuria, Korea, and as
far south as what is now Vietnam
A Highly Structured Society
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Emperor’s Role
• Chinese believe their emperor has
authority to rule from god.
• Believe prosperity is the reward of good
rule, and troubles reveal poor rule.
A Highly Structured Society
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Structures of Han Government
• Complex bureaucracy runs Han
government
• People pay taxes and supply labor and
military service
• Government uses peasant labor to carry
out public projects
A Highly Structured Society
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Confucianism, the Road to Success
• Wudi’s government employs 130,000;
bureaucracy of 18 ranks of jobs
• Civil service jobs—government jobs obtained
through examinations.
• Job applicants begin to be tested on knowledge
of Confucianism
• Wudi favors Confucian scholars, builds schools
to train them
• Only sons of wealthy can afford expensive
schooling
• Civil service system works well, continues unil
1912
Han Technology, Commerce, and
Culture
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Technology Revolutionizes Chinese
Life
• Invention of paper in A.D. 105 helps
spread education
• Collar harness, plow, and wheelbarrow
improve farming
Han Technology, Commerce, and
Culture
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Agriculture Versus Commerce
• As population grows, farming regarded
as important activity
• Government allows monopolies—control
by one group over key industries
• Techniques for producing silk become
state secret as profits increase
Han Unifies Chinese Culture
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Bringing Different Peoples Under
Chinese Rule
• To unify empire, Chinese government
encourages assimilation
• Assimilation—integrating conquered
peoples into Chinese culture
• Writers encourage unity by recording
Chinese history
An emperor translating classical
texts from the history of the
Chinese emperors.
Han Unifies Chinese Culture
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Women’s Roles—Wives, Nuns, and
Scholars
• Most women work in the home and on
the farm
• Some upper-class women are educated,
run shops, practice medicine
The Fall of the Han and Their
Return
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The Rich Take Advantage of the
Poor
• Large landowners gain control of
more and more land
• Gap between rich and poor
increases
The Fall of the Han and Their
Return
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Wang Mang Overthrows the Han
• Economic problems and week
emperors cause political instability
• In A.D. 9, Wang Mang seizes power
and stabilizes empire
• Wang Mang is assassinated in A.D.
23; Han soon regain control
The Fall of the Han and Their
Return
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The Later Han Years
• Peace is restored. The Later Han
Dynasty lasts until A.D. 220
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