Political Culture вЂ“ China Dedication to Communism вЂў Government no longer expects people to actively support communism, so long as the donвЂ™t actively oppose it. вЂў Since 1978, leaders have chosen to be judged by their ability to generate economic growth and increased standards of living for the people. вЂў In modern China, legitimacy is directly tied to economic performance вЂў In 2006, in colleges all over the country, the state reduced the number of required political ideology courses from 7 to 4 Economic Development вЂў The government has supported and advanced a policy of вЂњsome get rich first.вЂќ вЂў This, of course, has led to tremendous income inequality. вЂў Rural income is 30% lower than urban. вЂў Government also supports a policy of вЂњfirst development, then environment.вЂќ вЂў Economic development has become the key in promotion through the system Geography вЂў ItвЂ™s the 2nd largest country in area вЂў ItвЂ™s the largest country by population вЂў But, only about 25% of the land is arable вЂў Farmland is shrinking as industry and private property grows The вЂњRule of LawвЂќ вЂў There are laws and all are equally governed by them вЂў Historically, the вЂњrule of lawвЂќ has no place in communism as вЂњlaw is a weapon of the stateвЂќ вЂў While Chinese government often violates the latter part, reform began in 1978 вЂў First, there was a need to undo the wrongs of the Cultural Revolution and restore stability and order вЂў Second, Deng Xiaoping wanted to show a commitment to вЂњsystem building vs. arbitrary ruleвЂќ вЂў Finally, hoped to encourage economic growth and investment Legal Reform вЂў 1982 constitution subjects the party to authority of law вЂў 1996 reform gives the right to counsel at early stages of criminal investigation вЂў 1997 reform created laws dealing with economic crime вЂў It also eliminated the crime of вЂњcounterrevolutionвЂќ вЂў Instituted property rights and contract law вЂў Done to encourage foreign investment, to provide codes for growing capitalism, and to appease outside pressure (particularly surrounding the Olympics) Problems with law вЂў Capital punishment used in вЂњlesser crimesвЂќ (e.g., rape, theft, smuggling, and child trafficking). вЂў Trials are inquisitorial in nature вЂ“ by the time you get there, youвЂ™re already guilty вЂў There are several thousand political prisoners despite the removal of the counterrevolutionary law вЂў No judicial review вЂў The party controls the legal system Mass Media вЂў The explosion of telecommunications around the world have benefited China вЂў Decreased the importance of state-controlled media вЂў There are 10x as many periodicals (9,500) and newspapers (2,000) today as there were in 1978 вЂў Censorship is still alive вЂ“ the government can shut down papers that вЂњgo too farвЂќ вЂ“ regular monitoring of the Internet вЂ“ objection to foreign publication Political Participation вЂў Mao expected people to participate in political activity. Lack of participation was opposition to the regime. вЂў Today, apathy is accepted. вЂў The government has also moved away from mass mobilization campaigns. вЂў Finally, mass demonstrations are discouraged over private complaints through local channels. Parties and Mass Organizations вЂў There are 8 вЂњsatelliteвЂќ parties under communist control вЂ“ They participate in the NPC, but have no real policymaking power вЂў Mass organizations вЂ“ headed by party officials вЂ“ they donвЂ™t represent groups which are looking to have interests advanced in politics вЂ“ rather, they meet with those groups and explain relevant party decisions Corruption вЂў Chinese people consistently view corruption as a serious problem with the government вЂў In fact, the Tiananmen protests were as much about corruption as democracy вЂў Procuratorates are supposed to prosecute corruption as criminal offenses, but party discipline precedes criminal investigations Other Issues вЂ“ Part 1 вЂў Environmentalism вЂ“ 8-12% of GDP lost annually to pollution вЂ“ When village committees created in 1987, environmental protection became very difficult вЂ“ State EPA is horribly under funded вЂў Population Control вЂ“ Officially, China has a onechild policy вЂ“ Rules change from province to province вЂ“ Rules are less strict in rural areas вЂ“ Enforcement is difficult вЂ“ Despite objections, the policy has worked Other Issues вЂ“ Part 2 вЂў Hong Kong вЂ“ In 1984, China established вЂњone country, two systems,вЂќ to support capitalism in Hong Kong вЂ“ In 1996, after taking over, China replaced elected officials with its own вЂ“ Greater freedom there than elsewhere вЂў Taiwan вЂ“ Nationalists fled there after losing the civil war вЂ“ In 1971, it lost its official standing as the government of China вЂ“ Tension remains high with the mainland Final Thoughts вЂў Can economic growth continue without breaking the communist party and establishing democracy? вЂў Can China continue to survive as a communist regime when most of the others collapsed years ago? вЂў Will nationalism help continue to protect communism in China?