Student Shop Safety Presentation Swarthmore College By Julian Leland, 2010 Welcome to the Student Shop! The Student Shop is intended to be a place for Engineering students to work at their convenience on class and personal projects. вЂў As Engineering students, the Student Shop is OUR responsibility. We keep it clean, we keep it safe, we keep it maintained, and we keep it open. вЂў In this presentation, youвЂ™ll learn the rules of the student shop, guidelines for safe and productive use and be introduced to the tools available to you in the Shop. вЂў Once youвЂ™ve finished reading through the presentation, please complete the accompanying quiz and give it to the Faculty Supervisor вЂў 3 Basic Steps to Safety 1. THINK IT THROUGH FIRST! 2. If you donвЂ™t know how to do it, ask. 3. If you see something unsafe, say so. These simple steps will prevent 90% of shop injuries and accidents. Rules Of The Shop вЂў ALL вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ students are responsible for: Safe shop practices and appropriate use of safety equipment Maintaining a clean, safe workspace Logging broken tools Respecting the management practices of the shops (key restrictions, shop hours, not removing tools from the shop) and assisting the Student Shop Manager in their duties. вЂў Students with access to power tools are responsible for: вЂ“ Keeping power tools secured/locked away when not in use вЂ“ Observing safe usage practices at all times, especially when other users are in the shop. Rules of the Shop вЂў вЂў The Student Shop is open between 6 AM and 1 AM daily. Only students who have been given keys to the Shop by the Department may use the Shop. вЂ“ вЂў Students wishing to have access to power tools must complete the Engineering Machine Shop course and be confirmed by the Machinist as competent, safe tool-users. вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂў Students may NOT allow unauthorized students access to the shops. Students with access to power tools may NOT allow unauthorized students access to power tools, even to students who have access to the Shop. Students must have at least one other person working in the shop with them when operating power tools. If the student is using a benchtop tool, their companion may not be using power tools at that time. Please be reasonable and mature with regards to determining relative importance/precedence of projects (class projects come before personal projects, etc.). Rules of the Shop вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Safety glasses are to be worn at ALL TIMES in the Shop. There are no exceptions to this rule. Closed-toe shoes must be worn in the shop. Ear protection must be worn when working with powered tools. Long hair, jewelry, flowing clothing and anything else that might be caught in a machine/impair your ability to work safely must be removed, tied back, or otherwise managed. Tools and other equipment may not be taken from the Shop under any circumstances. Any messes made must be cleaned up, including debris produced as a result of work (sawdust, chips, etc). Tools must be returned to their proper hangars/drawers/racks. Damaged, missing or suspect tools or equipment must be logged with the Student Shop Manager. Failure to do this makes the shop dangerous for everyone. OthersвЂ™ projects should be left alone unless absolutely necessary. If something is in a vise/clamp/machine, it should not be removed. вЂ“ If you need to leave a project set up in a vise/clamp/machine, please leave a note in clear view explaining the need for the equipment and including contact information. Please be considerate of othersвЂ™ needs for the equipment. Egregious violations of decent conduct, such as theft, vandalism or endangerment, will be met with immediate expulsion from the Shop, semester-long loss of shop privileges, and hopefully a serious whomping. DonвЂ™t be evil. This shop is everyoneвЂ™s responsibility. Please respect and care for it accordingly. Hazards! вЂў вЂў There are virtually infinite ways that you can hurt yourself in the Shop! Hooray! Among the things that you should be aware of are: вЂ“ Flying Debris - chips, tools, parts, people, etc. вЂ“ Sharp Parts or Tools вЂ“ Fumes вЂ“ Machine Entanglement вЂ“ Burns and Fires вЂ“ Heavy Stuff Falling Down вЂ“ Electrical Shocks вЂ“ Slippery Surfaces Thankfully, thereвЂ™s a whole bunch of ways that you can prevent these things completely, or manage them safely when they occur. General Safety Equipment вЂў Basic safety equipment is your best friend in the shop - it will help mitigate the vast majority of hazards. вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Safety Glasses: your best friend, they must be worn AT ALL TIMES regardless of what work you are doing. They will help protect against flying debris and splashes: plus, they look damn sexy. Face Shields: safety glasses for the serious engineer. Use these whenever flying debris or splashes are a serious concern, or when using abrasive tools (especially wire wheels). Earplugs: necessary when working with power tools. Breath masks: use when working with large particulates (spray paint, sawdust) вЂў вЂ“ Note that standard breath masks do not protect against fumes. If you are working with dangerous fumes, you must either procure an appropriate respirator or work under a fume hood. Gloves: useful for protecting your hands against burns and abrasion. However, do NOT use gloves when working with power tools, especially rotary tools they can get caught and pull you into the tool. General Safety Equipment вЂў Ventilation System: work near the ventilation fan if your work is producing fumes/smoke. вЂ“ вЂў Be careful of fumes! All fumes are dangerous to some degree, and the Shop ventilation system is not designed to manage serious fumes. Do not let yourself be exposed to excessive fumes: if you start feeling light-headed or ill, stop work, move to fresh air IMMEDIATELY, and get professional medical attention if necessary. Fire Extinguisher: use in the event of a fire. Only attempt to control a fire if it can be safely done. вЂ“ In the event of a fire 1. 2. 3. вЂў Neutralize all immediate, life-threatening danger (evacuate the room, assist injured students) WITHOUT ENDANGERING YOURSELF . Ensure that the fire alarm is pulled/Public Safety is called. Attempt to control the fire if safe. To use the fire extinguisher: Your brain: Ultimately, you are your best defense against injury. Work slowly and carefully, think through your actions first, and ask if you are unsure about something. Tools! вЂў Now on to the fun stuff - the tools! вЂў The tools are in the shop for you to use - be cautious and safe, but donвЂ™t be afraid of them. Other students will be happy to show you how to use a tool that youвЂ™re unfamiliar with. вЂў There are three basic categories of tools in the shop: hand tools, power tools and auxiliary tools. Hand Tools вЂў Hand tools comprise the majority of tools you will use while you are in the Shop. вЂў They include general-purpose tools (hammers, screwdrivers, wrenches, pliers), cutting tools (saws, knives, shears) and measuring tools (rulers, squares, calipers, micrometers). вЂў Although simple, hand tools can be just as dangerous as power tools if misused. вЂ“ вЂ“ If you arenвЂ™t sure how to use a tool, ask someone. If someone tells you that you are using a tool unsafely, donвЂ™t get offended - they are concerned for your safety. Listen to their advice. General Purpose Tools вЂў Hammers вЂў There are 3 types of hammers in the Shop: claw, ball-peen and soft. вЂ“ вЂ“ All hammers: Hold the hammer at the end of its handle. Pivot at the elbow, not the wrist. Strike with the the face of the hammer parallel to your target. Claw hammers: For use with nails ONLY. The flat surface of the hammer drives nails in: the claw can be used to take them out. To use the claw, slide the fingers of the claw under the nail head. Push the handle of the hammer away from the nail such that the claw lifts up, pulling the nail out. вЂў вЂ“ вЂ“ Ball-peen: Can be used with wood and metal. Use this hammer with punches, cold chisels and other cutting tools. The ball end is extremely hard and can be used to shape metal. Soft: May be made out of rawhide, lead or rubber. Use this hammer for pounding wood fasteners, tightening/loosing vises or other machine parts, fitting parts together and positioning objects (such as positioning a vise on a table) вЂў вЂў DO NOT use the claw hammer with cold chisels, punches, et cetera. It is not designed for use with hardened steel and may shatter! DO NOT use the soft hammer with hard fasteners or on sharp objects - it will damage the hammer face! With all hammers, ensure that the head is securely attached to the handle! Flying hammer heads can kill! General Purpose Tools вЂў Screwdrivers вЂў вЂў Screwdrivers are for tightening and loosening screws ONLY. Using them to scrape, chisel or pry can damage the screwdriver and hurt you. There are a variety of tip shapes for screwdrivers. Use the correct shape for your job. вЂ“ Blade Shapes (looking at tip): Flat Head Phillips Head Torx Head Hex Head (can be inside or outside) вЂў Screwdrivers are sharp! DonвЂ™t hold your work in your hand while using a screwdriver - clamp it down, put it in a vise, or on a table. General Purpose Tools вЂў Wrenches вЂў There are many varieties of wrenches, but all are used to tighten and loosen fittings and bolts, and have jaws that are kept at a specific angle to each other (generally parallel). вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂў Adjustable Wrench: Good for general-purpose light duty work. The jaws are open and closed with the thumb wheel in the body of the wrench. Keep the jaws tight! Socket Wrench: Comprised of a ratcheting body and different-sized sockets that can be interchanged. Useful for bolts that require a lot of turning. Open Wrench: Simple, but useful for heavy-duty work. Some have вЂњbox-wrenchвЂќ heads - circular heads - which are extremely slipresistant. Hex/Allen Wrench: Typically smaller than other wrenches. Fit inside the fastener instead of around the outside. Avoid damaging bolt heads whenever possible! If a bolt is not turning, apply oil, gently tap with a ball-peen hammer and consult other people before turning harder/increasing your leverage on the wrench. General Purpose Tools вЂў Pliers вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Pliers are used to hold, twist and bend work. They can also be used to cut wire. Never use pliers to turn nuts/bolts! You will round the corners of the fastener head, making it harder to turn. Use the correct set of pliers for the job. Thin needlenose pliers should not be used to bend sheet steel - they will become вЂњsprungвЂќ (the jaws will be bent away from each other) and will be useless. Use flat jaw pliers instead. Some special-use pliers: вЂ“ Vise Grip Pliers: Something that all E6 students know and hate, vise grips are extremely useful pliers nonetheless. A screw at the end of the handle is used to adjust the angle of the jaws. The pliers will lock closed at this angle. To open, either pull the handles apart or (if applicable) press the opening lever. General Tools вЂў Punches, Transfers and Awls вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Use all of the above tools with a ball-peen hammer. Punches are long and non-tapered, with a flat tip. They are used to drive pins through holes, drive nails/fasteners that are inaccessible to a hammer and clean holes Drift pins are tapered punches. They are used to align holes before putting pins in. Transfer punches are round, hardened steel bars with small sharp tips on one end. They are used to transfer hole positions from one part to another. To use a transfer punch, select a punch of the same diameter as the hole you are trying to transfer. Place the punch in the hole; make sure the parts are correctly aligned, and strike the punch firmly with a ball-peen hammer. Center punches are used to make small indentations in metal before drilling a hole: this prevents the drill from вЂњwalkingвЂќ and drilling in an unintended location. They typically have a slightly tapered end which abruptly points at the end. вЂў When attempting to start holes, screws or nails in wood, an awl may be used - it is similar to a center punch, except typically much thinner. Do not beat on an awl - they are not as durable as metal punches. Use either hand pressure or a gentle tap from a ball-peen hammer instead. Cutting Tools вЂў Saws вЂў вЂў Saws are among the most common cutting tools in the Shop. There are two primary varieties of saw in the Shop: wood saws and metal saws (hacksaws) вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Wood Saws: These are either вЂњpushвЂќ or вЂњpullвЂќ saws, referring to which part of the saw stroke causes actual cutting. They (typically) have larger teeth than hacksaws Metal Saws/Hacksaws: These are commonly comprised of a thin metal blade held in a U-shaped metal frame, with a handle at one end. The blades can be released from their frame and replaced, either when dull or when a different blade is needed. General Saw Use: Cut with as much of the length of the saw as is practical. Use full, steady strokes. Let the saw do the work - you do not need to apply excessive pressure. Choose an appropriate blade for the work: generally, finer blades (more teeth per inch) are used for cutting thinner or softer stock. Cut in such a fashion that at least 2 teeth are in contact with the work at all times. Be careful at the end of the cut - the saw will tend to twist or tear the material. Cutting Tools вЂў Files вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Files are used for cutting, smoothing or removing small amounts of metal. They can be used to achieve extremely precise dimensions, but must be appropriately cared for. Files only cut in one direction - do not apply pressure on the backstroke! You will damage the file. There are two primary types of file in the Shop: single-cut files, where the file teeth are cut in only one direction, and double-cut files, where two sets of teeth are cut crossing one another. Use double-cut files for rough work and single-cut files for finishing. Regardless of file type, start with coarse-toothed (few teeth/inch) files and move to progressively finer files. Files come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Use the appropriate file for the job - do not use a small file to take large cuts out of hard materials, but similarly do not try to perform finish work with a coarse file. File Cuts: вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂў Cross-Filing: With one hand on the file handle and the other on the tip of the file, hold the file flat against the surface to be filed, at an angle relative to the edges of the surface. Start the cut at the tip of the file, maintaining light pressure: push the file straight across the surface being filed. Repeat, ensuring that you do not exert pressure when bringing the file back. Draw-Filing: Holding the file firmly in both hands, place the blade perpendicular to the direction of filing (but still flat against the surface to be filed). Slide the file across the surface, exerting sufficient pressure to cut (but not enough to bend the file). Note that pressure does not need to be relieved during the backstroke. ALWAYS STORE FILES PROPERLY! Contact between files will damage their teeth. Store files in the designated drawers or racks, taking care that the file blades do not touch. Cutting Tools вЂў Chisels вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў There are two primary varieties of chisels that you may encounter in the Shop; cold chisels and wood chisels. Do not confuse them! You can cause the chisel or the work to shatter, seriously hurting yourself and those around you! All chisels are used by placing the blade against the workpiece between 15Вє and 60Вє relative to the surface being cut, and then hitting the handle/end of the chisel with a hammer. Wood chisels are used for making square cuts and pockets in wood. They typically have a wood or plastic handle. The blade may be a variety of different shapes: however, the most common shape is a flat blade. Wood chisels should always be used with a mallet - never a hammer. Cold chisels are used for cutting and вЂњchippingвЂќ steel. They are made from a solid bar of steel. The cold chisel will cut any metal softer than itself. Use a ball-peen hammer to drive a cold chisel. вЂ“ If you notice the handle of the cold chisel вЂњmushroomingвЂќ - developing a rough, spread-out ring where the hammer has impacted it - let the Shop Manager know. Cutting Tools вЂў Shears вЂў There are a few different types of shears in the Shop: each is for a different purpose. вЂ“ Scissors: WellвЂ¦duh. TheyвЂ™re scissors. You can cut soft material with them - donвЂ™t use them for wire or sheet metal. вЂ“ Compound/Aviation Snips: These are heavy-duty shears used for cutting sheet metal. Some aviation snips are designed to cut left- or right-hand curves (l - they can be distinguished by their curved blades. вЂ“ Wire cutters: Also known as diagonal cutters, these cutters are similar to pliers in size and shape, except that they have straight blades running the length of the plier jaw. вЂ“ For other cutting tasks, including bolts, chains and wire cable/aircraft cable, ask the Shop Manager for assistance. You can damage shears by attempting to cut material that is too thick/hard: other tools may be appropriate for the task you have at hand. Measurement Tools вЂў Basic Measurement Tools вЂў Rulers: These are self-explanatory. There are both measuring tapes and machinistвЂ™s rules (6-inch rulers with very fine gradations) in the shops. вЂў Levels: Used to determine the parallelness of a surface relative to the ground. They commonly consist of a flat surface (a ruler or block) and a fluid-filled chamber with a small air bubble inside. There will be two lines on the outside of the chamber: when the air bubble is between the two lines, the surface is level. When using a level, ensure that no debris is between the level and the surface being measured. Measurement Tools вЂў Layout Tools вЂў Combination Squares: Among the most useful measurement & layout tools available. A combination square is comprised of a steel ruler and one of three head attachments. вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂў вЂў Squaring Head: The combination head may be used to mark perpendicular and 45Вє lines. Combination heads also typically contain a small level. Protractor Head: The protractor head may be used to mark angular measurements. Be careful where you place the centre of the angle! Center Head: The center head is used to mark the center/midlines of circular objects. It consists of 2 arms that sit at 45Вє on either side of the ruler. Compasses: Almost identical to compasses used in geometry classes, except that they have hardened steel or carbide tips. Can be used to scribe circles on steel. Height Gauges: The height gauge typically consists of a long track that stands vertically in the air and a вЂњheadвЂќ that can be set precisely at different heights along the track. The head has a carbide blade extending from it. The height gauge is commonly used with a layout table, a smooth granite or steel block that is ground and polished to be extremely flat, to scribe straight lines at precise positions in metal. To use a layout table and height gauge, set the height gauge to the dimension desired. Placing your part on the layout table, press the part firmly (but do not move the height gauge!) against the corner of the carbide blade and push it so that the blade scores a line into your part. вЂ“ DO NOT USE THE LAYOUT TABLE FOR ANYTHING BUT LAYOUT WORK! It is extremely tempting to hammer/work on the table - DO NOT DO THIS. Measurement Tools вЂў Precision Measurement Tools вЂў Precision measurement tools are among the most valuable tools at your disposal, but they are extremely fragile, and do not perform well if roughly or improperly used. Take the proper care when using precision tools, and they will serve you well. Always ensure that all surfaces to be measured, as well as your tools, are free from dirt and grease. Do not drop, throw or rest things on precision tools. Do not expose them to extreme heat or extreme cold. Do not use excessive force with precision tools - it will reduce the accuracy of your measurements greatly. вЂў Calipers: Possibly the most common precision measurement tool. Calipers can be used to measure outer dimensions (with the main jaws), inside dimensions (with the rear jaws not very accurate) and depths (with the rod that extends from the end of the calipers when the jaws are opened). When holding/using calipers, hold the calipers gently but firmly around the body of the calipers and actuate the jaws using the thumb wheel. Measure at the center of the jaws. If two hands are needed, gently grasp the front jaw of the calipers to stabilize them. Measurement Tools вЂў Precision Measurement Tools вЂў Micrometers: Micrometers typically have a smaller range than calipers (1вЂќ vs. 6вЂќ) but are far more accurate, being capable of accuracies down to .0001вЂќ. To use a micrometer, gently but firmly grasp the frame of the micrometer and actuate the thimble with your other hand. Measurements are read from a Vernier scale, which are used thus: вЂ“ From Wikipedia: вЂњThe spindle of an inch-system micrometer has 40 threads per inch, so that one turn moves the spindle axially 0.025 inch (1/40 = 0.025), equal to the distance between two graduations on the frame. The 25 graduations on the thimble allow the 0.025 inch to be further divided, so that turning the thimble through one division moves the spindle axially 0.001 inch (0.025/25 = 0.001). Thus, the reading is given by the number of whole divisions that are visible on the scale of the frame, multiplied by 25 (the number of thousandths of an inch that each division represents), plus the number of that division on the thimble which coincides with the axial zero line on the frame. The result will be the diameter expressed in thousandths of an inch. As the numbers 1, 2, 3, etc., appear below every fourth sub-division on the frame, indicating hundreds of thousandths, the reading can easily be taken mentally.Suppose the thimble were screwed out so that graduation 2, and three additional sub-divisions, were visible (as shown in the image), and that graduation 1 on the thimble coincided with the axial line on the frame. The reading then would be 0.2000 + 0.075 + 0.001, or .276 inch.вЂќ Micrometer reading .276вЂќ Power Tools вЂў Power tools are extremely useful, speeding up most construction tasks greatly вЂў However, they must be treated with respect - they can hurt you severely if used improperly. вЂў There are three primary types of power tool in the shop - drilling tools, cutting tools and abrasive tools. Drilling Tools вЂў вЂў Drilling tools include hand drills and drill presses. Drill bits and tap & die sets will also be covered here. Drill bits: вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ The drill bits in the Shop are twist drills. They are primarily high-speed steel, which can be used to cut most metals. It cannot, however, cut high-speed steel or tap steel - if you break a tap/drill and need to remove it, please see the Shop Manager Note that drills will cut holes slightly larger than their rated dimension (i.e., a 1/4вЂќ drill may cut a hole that is .257 in diameter) When drilling metal, always be sure to start the hole with a punch followed by a center drill. The center drill should be driven in until its tip can no longer be seen Use appropriate coolant when drilling, and do not overheat the material that you are working with Other types of drill bit include spade bits (for wood), masonry bits (for stone), and countersink bits (for countersunk screws) Drilling Tools Taps and Dies вЂў вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Taps and dies are used to cut threads into holes (taps) or onto rods (dies). They are extremely hard, but are brittle, and will break if dropped or forced. When tapping/threading, make sure that the dowel/hole you are working with is the correct diameter! This should be checked with a micrometer or very carefully with calipers. Consult the Shop Manager if you need help with this - the proper diameter is rarely what you think it should be! To thread/tap: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Prepare the hole/dowel by slightly beveling the edge that the tap/die will start cutting at. Mount the tap/die in the correct wrench. Place the tool in the hole/on the rod to be threaded. While turning the tool clockwise (for a right-handed thread), apply just enough pressure that the tool begins to cut into the rod/hole being cut. Once the tool has gained purchase, cut 3 turns, stop, and then reverse the tool until you feel a slight вЂњsnappingвЂќ. When the tap/die cuts, it forms a spiral of metal in front of each of its blades - this вЂњsnappingвЂќ is the spiral breaking off. Repeat this process to cut. Occasionally remove the tool completely and remove accumulated chips from the hole. ALWAYS use oil when cutting threads. Drilling Tools вЂў Drills вЂ“ There are two primary types of drills you will encounter in the Shop: hand drills and drill presses. They are functionally the same; the drill press allows greater accuracy and force, while the hand drill is more mobile and versatile. вЂ“ With all drills, ensure that work is adequately secured before drilling. The drill can catch on parts and cause them to spin, causing severe injury. Always wear safety goggles when drilling! вЂ“ Speak with the Shop Manager before drilling exotic materials (plexiglass, bronze, brass, etc.) Some materials require specially shaped drill bits to prevent catching. Cutting Tools вЂў вЂў Saws: Used for making linear cuts in parts. Bladed saws вЂ“ The powered bladed saws you are likely to encounter in the Shop are the hand-held jigsaw and the stationary vertical bandsaw. вЂ“ Jigsaw: May be used to cut metal or wood - ensure the correct blade is in the chuck. When using the saw, make sure to adequately support your work and keep the saw pressed firmly against it. вЂ“ Vertical Bandsaw: May also be used to cut metal or wood. Use slower cutting speeds for harder materials. Before cutting, lower the blade guide to the lowest possible height that will allow your work to pass underneath it.Be cautious when cutting tubes or circular stock - the bandsaw will attempt to spin them. NEVER attempt to cut wire or other fibrous materials on the bandsaw - it will pull the material into the saw, damaging the saw and potentially causing serious injury. Cutting Tools вЂў Abrasive Saws вЂ“ Abrasive saws are most commonly encountered as cut-off wheels. They are typically rough and a dark color: they may range in size from 1вЂќ diameter (Dremel tool cut-off disk) to 5вЂќ (angle grinder cut-off wheel) to more than 1вЂ™ (tile saws, pipe saws). вЂ“ Be extremely careful when using cut-off wheels, as they can fracture. They spin at extremely high speeds (10,000+ RPM), and throw sparks/other debris everywhere additionally, if they fracture, they will throw fragments of wheel. Always wear proper eye protection: respirator masks and face shields are highly recommended. вЂў If a cut-off wheel is ground down below 75% of its original diameter (or to manufacturer specification), replace the wheel IMMEDIATELY. Abrasive Tools вЂў вЂў Abrasive tools are used for removing areas of material as you would with a file. They include sanders, brushes and grinders. Be extremely cautious around abrasive tools - they can sand off your skin far more easily than they can sand metal. Be especially careful to contain flowing clothes, hair and other things that could be вЂњgrabbedвЂќ by the tool. вЂ“ Sanders: Most materials can be shaped on a sander. You will most likely encounter a vertical belt sander in the shop. To sand, support the workpiece on the sander table and press it against the moving belt. вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Ensure that the material/fingers are not pulled down into the gap between the sander table and the belt! If the belt gets torn, notify the Shop Manager immediately. Sanders can release great quantities of dust, sparks and fumes. Be conscious of these hazards, and wear appropriate safety equipment. NEVER sand metals when debris from sanding wood or plastic is around. The sparks released can ignite this debris. Parts that have just been sanded can become EXTREMELY hot - be cautious of your own well-being, and also be cautious that you do not damage the material you are working with. Abrasive Tools вЂ“ Wire wheels: Used to clean and polish metals. вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂ“ Among the most dangerous tools in the shop. They spin at extremely high speeds, and will grab any soft material they contact and wrap it around the wheel. Additionally, they occasionally throw wires during regular use, making proper eye protection (and reasonably, full body protection) absolutely mandatory - the wires will easily penetrate .25вЂќ into skin. When using a wire wheel, make sure that the wheel does not catch an edge at more than 45 degrees - the wire wheel will throw the part if this happens. Never leave a wire wheel running, even if you are still in the room. Grinders: Used to shape metals вЂў вЂў вЂў Although not as dangerous as wire wheels due to their wheels being mostly enclosed, grinders can still cause great harm, especially from sparks or if a part is thrown. When using a grinder, make sure you are using the correct wheel for the job - consult the Shop Manager for help with this. Do not use the grinder for sanding - it will clog and not work. Support your part on the grinder table and take small cuts. Auxiliary Tools вЂў Auxiliary tools are primarily used for holding parts. They consist of vises and clamps. вЂ“ Vises: Use a screw action to close two jaws on parts and hold them in place. Vises should be attached to something. вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Some vises have anvil heads, which may be used for hammering/shaping metal. If a vise does not have an anvil head, do not use it as though it does! For working with soft metals/other materials that might be damaged by the vise, use soft jaws (typically made of copper or another soft metal) or cut wooden shims to fit between your part and the vise jaws. To clamp circular parts, use a 90Вє V-block (or even 2, if need be) - hold the part between the V-blocks, and clamp the V-blocks together with the vise. Vises that are attached to machine tools should be treated with great care - they are precision devices, and should be carefully maintained. Auxiliary Tools вЂ“ Clamps: Clamps are used to hold parts together. They can also be used to give better purchase on a part that you are trying to hold. вЂў C-Clamps: The most common type of clamp. Slow to use, but capable of exerting extreme force. Tighten/loosen the clamp by rotating the handle. вЂў Furniture Clamps: Used to clamp over large distances (typically, across cabinets) can exert moderate force. Commonly, the head of the clamp will slide freely up and down the shaft of the clamp until the two jaws of the clamp are tightened around something. вЂў Spring clamps/hand clamps: Low force, but extremely easy to use - can be applied one-handed. First Aid вЂў In the event that something goes wrongвЂ¦ 1. Neutralize any exigent danger (shut off a running tool, put out a fire, disconnect power to a shorted tool) unless doing so would put you at risk or more seriously injure the hurt person. 2. Contact the appropriate authorities: вЂў Public Safety: (610)-328-8333 or 8333 from any campus phone. вЂў Fire/Ambulance/Police: 911 3. Only if you are qualified, attempt basic first aid. вЂў This is not intended to be a first aid course - rather, it outlines the correct procedures for some basic injuries you may encounter. Unless you are trained in first aid and comfortable with these procedures, do not attempt these or any other first aid. First Aid вЂў Injuries and First Aid вЂ“ Cuts and Abrasions: For minor cuts and abrasions, clean with soap and water, and then apply sterile bandages. For larger wounds, elevate the wound above the heart if possible, and apply pressure. If bleeding does not stop within 5 minutes, seek medical assistance. Large incisions, those that still contain debris or those caused by dirty objects should also be examined by a medical professional. вЂ“ Burns: вЂў Small burns (under 2вЂќ diameter) up to second degree (blistering, no charring of skin) may be treated by soaking the burned area in cold water or by applying cold wet cloths. Larger burns require medical attention. вЂў Chemical burns: Remove any clothing covering the affected area, and flush with water for 10 or more minutes. Immediately seek medical attention. вЂў Use non-stick bandages when bandaging burns. First Aid вЂ“ Debris in Eye: If the eye has been penetrated by a foreign object, do not attempt to remove it - seek medical attention. Other debris may be removed by gently moistening eye and allowing debris to be carried out by tears. вЂ“ Puncture Wounds: For small (under .5вЂќ deep) wounds, flush with water and soap to clean after removing foreign body. For larger wounds, do not attempt removal - seek professional assistance. Consult a doctor if the wound is caused by a dirty/rusty object. вЂ“ Severed digits: Elevate the injured limb: staunch bleeding with sterile material, applying consistent, firm pressure. Wrap the severed digit in sterile material, place in a plastic bag and pack in ice. Seek immediate medical attention вЂ“ Electric shock: If possible, shut off power. Standing on a dry surface, disengage victim from source with a wooden broom handle or other dry nonconductive object. Immediately get emergency help. Problems? вЂў If thereвЂ™s problem in the shop, contact: вЂ“ Student Shop Manager: ____________________ вЂў Phone: ___ - ___ - ____ вЂў Email: email@example.com вЂ“ Faculty Supervisor: Nelson Macken вЂў Phone: (610)-328-8073 вЂў firstname.lastname@example.org YouвЂ™re Done! Hooray! YouвЂ™ve completed the Student Shop Safety Presentation! Now, complete the safety quiz that youвЂ™ve been given and hand it in to the Faculty Supervisor to receive your key. Welcome to the Swarthmore Engineering Student Shop!