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PRODUCTIONS/OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

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State Zero
Born in Moscow in 1863, Constantin Sergeyevich Stanislavsky had a more
profound effect on the process of acting than anyone else in the twentieth
century. It was his assertion that if the theater was going to be meaningful it
needed to move beyond the external representation that acting had primarily
been. Over forty years he created an approach that forefronted the
psychological and emotional aspects of acting. The Stanislavsky System, or
"the method," as it has become known, held that an actor’s main
responsibility was to be believed (rather than recognized or understood).
Today in the United States, Stanislavsky’s theories are the primary source of
study for many actors. Among the many great actors and teachers to use his
work are Marlon Brando and Gregory Peck. Many of artists have continued
experimentation with Stanislavsky’s ideas. Among the best known of these
proponents is the Actors Studio, an organization that has been home to some
of the most talented and successful actors of our time.
Stanislavsky saw that the difference between the good actor and the great
actor was the ability to be relaxed, and to be private in public.
We learn from Stanislavsky: As the students relax before the lecture start;
they clean the slate, going to a zero state, being ready for the best
performance in the learning process.
1
Quality Function Deployment (QDF)
An approach that integrates
“the voice of customer”
into product development
and design process
House of Quality
2
Customer Requirements and Technical Requirements
3
Competitive Evaluation
4
Correlation Between Technical Requirements
5
Ch 5(A) : Process Planning
6
Process Selection in Operations Management
Process Planning is among System Design duties in OM.
Capacity
planning
Forecasting
Process
selection
Facilities and
Equipment
Layout
Product and
service design
Work
design
7
Process Architectures
Process Architecture refers to
пЃ¶ Physical layout of resources
пЃ·Job Shop
пЃ·Batch Processing
пЃ·Flow Shop
пЃ·Continuous Flow
пЃ¶ Flexibility of resources
пЃ·R_Human: Cross functional workers
пЃ·R_Capital: Short set-up time
8
Examples of 4 basic type production Systems
System
Example
Job Shop
Commercial Printer
Batch Processing
Heavy Equipment
Flow Shop (Production Line)
Car Assembly
Continuous Flow
Sugar Refinery
Most Processes are some where between Job shop and
Flow shop
9
Process Architectures: Job Shop
Output
Product 1
Input
Product 2
A
C
B
D
10
Job Shop
пЂ­ Functional layout or Process layout: similar resources in the
same department. Ex. all press machines are located in
stamping department. Ex. Bakeries, law firms, emergency
rooms, repair shops.
пЂ­ low volume, high variety customized products
пЂ­ flexible resources
пЂ­ skilled human resources
пЂ­ jumbled work flows
пЂ­ high material handling
пЂ­ large of inventories
пЂ­ long flow time
пЂ­ highly structured information system
пЂ­ high cost per unit of product but low investment
11
Process Architectures: Flow Shop
Product 1
A D B
Input
Product 2
Output
C B A
12
Flow Shop
пЂ­ Product layout or line layout: Resources are arranged
according to the sequence of the operations. Usually requires
duplication ( and investment) of a resource pool; dedication of
resources.
пЂ­ Discrete flow shop: assembly line
пЂ­ Continuous flow shop: beverage, chemical plant, process plant.
пЂ­ high standardization, high speed
пЂ­ low material handling
пЂ­ short flow time
пЂ­ low unit-processing costs
пЂ­ high investment cost; needs mass production.
пЂ­ special purpose equipment, and low skilled labor prevent
flexibility
13
Matching Process Choice with Strategy: Product-Process Matrix
Process
Flexibility
High
JOB SHOP
Jumbled Flow.
Process segments
loosely linked.
(Commercial Printer,
Architecture firm)
BATCH
Disconnected Line
Flow/Jumbled Flow
but a dominant flow
exists.
(Heavy Equipment,
Auto Repair)
FLOW SHOP
Connected Line
Flow (assembly line)
Continuous, automated,
rigid line flow.
Process segments tightly
linked.
Low
(Auto Assembly,
Car lubrication shop)
CONTINUOUS
FLOW
(Oil Refinery)
High
Low
High Standardization
Commodity Products
High volume
Few Major Products
Many Products
Low Standardization
One of a kind
Low Volume
Product
Variety
14
Matching Process Choice with Strategy: Product-Process Matrix
Process
Flexibility
High
JOB SHOP
Jumbled Flow.
Process segments
loosely linked.
(Commercial Printer,
Architecture firm)
BATCH
Disconnected Line
Flow/Jumbled Flow
but a dominant flow
exists.
(Heavy Equipment,
Auto Repair)
FLOW SHOP
Connected Line
Flow (assembly line)
Continuous, automated,
rigid line flow.
Process segments tightly
linked.
Low
A similar graph can
be prepared to
show the
relationship
between process
flexibility and cost,
or process
flexibility and
response time, but
not for quality.
(Auto Assembly,
Car lubrication shop)
CONTINUOUS
FLOW
(Oil Refinery)
High
Low
High Standardization
Commodity Products
High volume
Few Major Products
Many Products
Low Standardization
One of a kind
Low Volume
Product
Variety
15
ABC Analysis in Production System Design
Volume
Flow
Shop
Batch
Productio
n
Job
Shop
Variety
16
Levels of Automation
Manual Machines; A manual operator load and unload the part,
and intervenes during the operations
NC (Numerically Controlled) machines; Machines are
programmed to perform specific operations. Loading and
unloading of parts are manual.
CNC (Computerized Numerically Controlled); Each machine is
controlled by a computer
Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM); A computerized
system for linking a broad rang of automated manufacturing,
loading and unloading, and material handling systems
17
Capacity
• Design capacity
– Maximum obtainable output--Vendor claim
• Effective capacity
– Maximum capacity given product mix, scheduling
difficulties, and other doses of reality--We believe
• Actual output
– The output that is actually achieved--cannot exceed
effective capacity-- We really achieve
18
Efficiency and Utilization
Efficiency
Utilizatio
пЂЅ
nпЂЅ
Actual Output
Effective
Capacity
Actual Output
Design Capacity
19
Example : Efficiency and Utilization
Design capacity = 50 trucks/day
Effective capacity = 40 trucks/day
Actual output = 36 units/day
Efficiency
Utilizatio
пЂЅ
n пЂЅ
Actual Output
Effective
36 unit/day
пЂЅ
Capacity
Actual Output
Design Capacity
пЂЅ 90 %
40 unit/day
пЂЅ
36 unit/day
пЂЅ 72 %
50 unit/day
20
Given the following information
Effective capacity = 80 units per day.
Design capacity = 100 units per day
Efficiency = %50
Utilization is equal to
Efficiency = (Actual Output)/(Effective Capacity) = .5
(Actual Output)/(80) = .5
Actual Output = 40
Utilization = (Actual Output)/(Design Capacity)
Utilization = 40/100
Utilization = .4 or 40%
21
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