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Introduction to Job Shop Scheduling Problem

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Introduction to Job Shop
Scheduling Problem
Qianjun Xu
Oct. 30, 2001
Description of Job Shop Scheduling
A finite set of n jobs
Each job consists of a chain of operations
A finite set of m machines
Each machine can handle at most one operation at a time
Each operation needs to be processed during an
uninterrupted period of a given length on a given machine
• Purpose is to find a schedule, that is, an allocation of the
operations to time intervals to machines, that has minimal
Formal Definition of JSS
J пЂЅ { j1 , j 2 , ... j n }
Job set
M пЂЅ { m1 , m 2 , ... m m }
Machine set
O i пЂЅ { o i1 , o i 2 ,... o im }
O пЂЅ {o1 , o 2 , ... o n }
Each operation has processing time {пЃґ i1 , пЃґ i 2 ,...пЃґ im }
On O define A, a binary relation represent a precedence
between operations. If ( v , w ) пѓЋ A then v has to be
performed before w.
• A induce the total ordering belonging to the same job; no
precedence exist between operations of different jobs.
Formal Definition of JSS cont.
• A schedule is a function S : O  IN  { 0 } that for each operation v
defines a start time S(v).
• A schedule S is feasible if
пЂўv пѓЋ O :
S (v ) п‚і 0
пЂў v, w пѓЋ O , (v, w ) пѓЋ A :
S (v ) пЂ« пЃґ (v ) п‚Ј S ( w )
пЂў v , w пѓЋ O , v п‚№ w , M ( v ) пЂЅ M ( w ) : S ( v ) пЂ« пЃґ ( v ) п‚Ј S ( w ) or
S ( w ) пЂ« пЃґ ( w ) п‚Ј S (v )
• The length of a schedule S is len ( S )  max v  O ( S ( v )   ( v ) )
• The goal is to find an optimal schedule, a feasible schedule of
minimum length., min(len(S)).
Disjunctive Graph
• An instance of the JSS problem can be represented by
means of a disjunctive graph G=(O, A, E).
• The vertices in O represent the operations
• The arcs in A represent the given precedence between the
• The edge in E  { ( v , w ) v , w  O , v  w , M ( v )  M ( w ) }
represent the machine capacity constraints
• Each vertex v has a weight, equal to the processing time
пЃґ (v )
Example of Disjunctive Graph
Disjunctive Graph with Edge
Disjunctive Graph Cont.
• Finding an optimal feasible schedule is equivalent to
finding an orientation E’ that minimizes the longest path
length in the related digraph.
Why JSS Problem
• It is considered to be a good representation of the general
domain and has earned a reputation for being notoriously
difficult to solve
• JSS is considered to belong to the class of decision
problems which are NP
• Lenstra et al(1977) Show that
– 3*3 problem
– N*2 instance with no more than 3 operations per job
– N*3 problem with no more than 2 operations per job
– N*3 problem where all operations are of unit processing time
Belong to the set of NP instances.
Methods to Solve JSS
• Mathematical Formulations:
– mixed integer linear programming (1960)
• Branch and Bound
• Approximation Methods
– Priority dispatch rules
– Bottleneck based heuristics
– Artificial intelligence(constraint satisfaction approach,
neural networks)
– Local search methods
Branch and Bound
• Using a dynamically constructed tree structure represents the solution
space of all feasible sequences
• Search begins at topmost node and a complete selection is achieved
once the lowest level node has been evaluated
• Each node at a level p in the search tree represent a partial sequence of
p operations
• From an unselected node the branching operation determines the next
set of possible nodes from which the search could progress
• The bounding procedure selects the operation which will continue the
search and is based on an estimated LB and currently best achieved
UB. IF at any node the estimated LB is found to be greater than the
current best UB, this partial selection and all its subsequent
descendants are disregarded.
Priority Dispatch Rules
• At each successive step all the operations which are
available to be scheduled are assigned a priority and the
operation with the highest priority is chosen to be
• Usually several runs of PDRs are made in order to achieve
valid results.
Constraint Satisfaction Approach
• Aiming at reducing the effective size of the search space
by applying constraints that restrict the order in which
variables are selected and the sequence in which possible
values are assigned to each variable
• Constraint propagation
• Backtracking
• Variable heuristic
• Value heuristic
Neural Networks
• Hopfield networks
• Back-error propagation networks
Local Search Method
• Configurations: a finite set of solutions.
• Cost function to be optimised.
• Generation mechanism, generating a transition from one
configuration to another.
• Neighborhood, N(x), is a function which defines a simple
transition from a solution x to another solution by inducing
a change.
• Selection of neighborhood:
– chose the first lower cost neighbor found;
– select the best neighbor in the entire neighborhood;
– Choose the best of a sample of neighbors.
• The definition of JSS
• The disjunctive graph
• The methods to solve JSS
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