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The role of the OIE in a safe and fair trade Dr. Alex Thiermann

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Dr. Alex Thiermann
President, Terrestrial Animal Health Code Commission
World Organisation for Animal Health
The role of the OIE
in a safe and fair trade
WTO Public Forum 2006
Geneva, CH, September 2006
1
• an intergovernmental
organisation
• founded in 1924 by
28 countries
• predates the U.N.
World Organisation for Animal Health
Organisation mondiale de la santГ© animale
Organizacion Mundial de Sanidad Animal
Common name adopted
by the International
Committee on May 2003
2
167 Member Countries (May 2006)
49
13
29
50
26
Americas: 29 – Africa: 50 – Europe: 49 – Middle East: 13 – Asia: 26
3
Why an SPS Agreement?
Removal of non-tariff barriers to trade
GATT article XX(b)
пѓ�need for clearer rules
Concentrate on health measures
пѓ�Provide rights and obligations
4
Standard-setting organisations
food safety
animal health
plant health
CODEX
OIE
IPPC
Codex = Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission
OIE =
World Organisation for Animal Health
IPPC =
International Plant Protection Convention (FAO)
5
OIE Objectives
1.
To ensure accurate collection and transparency in reporting the animal health
situation throughout the world.
2.
Under the WTO-SPS Agreement mandate, establish standards on animal
health and zoonoses for international trade in animals and animal products.
3.
To collect, analyse and disseminate scientific veterinary information.
4.
To provide technical expertise and encourage international solidarity in the
control and eradication of animal diseases.
5.
To improve the competencies and legal framework of Veterinary Services.
6.
To develop guiding principles and specific recommendations for animal
welfare
6
COMMITTEE,
COMMISSIONS,
DELEGATES
PROBLEM
Specialist
Commissions
development
and updating
international
standards
Review
Advice of experts or other
Specialist Commissions
Draft text
1
2
DELEGATES
COMMITTEE
OIE INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
Adoption
7
Direct costs of participation
delegates from 145/167 OIE Member
Countries attended 2006 General Session
пѓ�registration fees waived and daily expenses paid
experts participating in OIE Specialist
Commissions, working groups and expert
groups have their fares and expenses paid
EC has made available 100,000 Euros to assist
participation of experts from developing
countries in standards development
8
Terrestrial Animal Health Code
Provides detailed recommendations of sanitary
measures to be used by Chief Veterinary Officers
of Member Countries in establishing regulations
applying to the safe trade of animals and animal
products, while avoiding unjustified restrictions
Contains recommendations covering ruminants,
swine, equidae, rabbits, bees, poultry, dogs and
cats
In five languages: English, French, Spanish and
Russian (Arabic version recently released)
9
Evolution of OIE standards
Need to go from freedom status to risk-based
Emphasis on safety of the commodity
Essential role of epidemiological surveillance
Strength of laboratory network
Close link of surveillance to risk assessment
Maximize stakeholder participation
10
Zoning and Compartmentalization
Regionalization: geographical �zoning’
Compartmentalization: �zoning’ on the basis of
biosecurity in animal production systems
Role of wildlife in zoning and regionalization
Role of private and public sector
11
Compartment
Equipment
GROWING
FLOCK
SLAUGHTER
HOUSE
Birds
Equipment
Feed
FEED
SUPPLY
Feed
BREEDING
FLOCK
GROWING
FLOCK
Equipment
12
Influences on standards
pressure from exporting countries for less
restrictions
pressure from importing countries for
maximum protection
consumer and NGO reactions
pressure from developing countries for
assistance in participating in the process
13
Importance of adherence to
OIE standards
Safe trade, based on scientific risk analysis
Commodity specific risk mitigation measures
Provides credibility to the Veterinary Services
Consistency of message to consumers
Demonstrate ability to detect emerging diseases
14
International standards, conclusions
National authorities and their stakeholders must become
more involved in the OIE standard setting process
Authorities must implement the adopted OIE standards in
their national regulations
Often national industry interests and short sighted politics
interfere in the implementation of science based regulations
Global organizations and corporations can play a key role
in the implementation of standards at national levels, as
well as in the harmonization of animal health and safety of
food rules
15
Animal Welfare, current reality
Globalization is becoming a force that is
revolutionizing international trade
The WTO recognizes the OIE as the standardsetting organization for animal health
There is an important link between animal
health and animal welfare
However, there is no specific mention of
animal welfare in the WTO agreements
16
Animal Welfare guidelines
Current guidelines:
пѓ�Sea transport
пѓ�Land transport
пѓ�Slaughter
пѓ�Killing for disease control
On-going work:
пѓ�Fish transport and slaughter
пѓ�Urban dog control
пѓ�Laboratory animals
17
Animal Welfare predictions!
Animal welfare will increase in importance as a consumer
demand and therefore international trade
Acceptance and enforcement of animal welfare guidelines
in international trade will be slow
Animal welfare guidelines will be slowly incorporated
through positive labeling
The welfare in traditional farming can easily become a
competitive advantage to developing countries
18
Emerging Zoonosis
An emerging zoonosis is a zoonosis that is newly
recognized or newly evolved, or that has
occurred previously but shows an increase in
incidence or expansion in a geographic, host,
or vector range.
Some of these diseases may further evolve and
become effectively and essentially
transmissible from human to human.
19
Emerging Infectious
Diseases
Encroachment
Introduction
“Spill over” &
“Spill back”
Agricultural
Intensification
Translocation
Wildlife EID
Domestic
Animal EID
Dasazak P. et.al.
Science 2000 287:443
Human encroachment
Ex situ contact
Ecological manipulation
Human EID
Global travel
Urbanization
Biomedical
manipulation
Technology and
Industry
20
Specific Challenges for
Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses
Improving the global capacity for response
Improving early warning and surveillance
systems using innovative technologies
Improving disease reporting
Improving diagnostics
21
Conclusions
The era of emerging zoonoses will continue and
expand.
The factors and driving forces producing this era
show no sign of abatement.
Local emerging diseases quickly become global.
The significance and implications of emerging
zoonoses are rapidly increasing in scope, scale, and
importance.
The convergence of human and animal health offers
both important challenges and opportunities.
22
Strengthening veterinary services
OIE considers Veterinary Services to be a
Global Public Good
their coming into line with international
standards is a public investment priority
пѓ�structure, organisation, resources, capacities, role
of the private sector and para-professionals
2001 World Bank/OIE MOU supports this
view
23
STDF
global programme in capacity building and
technical assistance for developing countries
strategic aim is to assist countries to enhance
their expertise and capacity to analyse and
implement international SPS standards
пѓ�improving their human, animal and plant health
situations
пѓ�improving ability to gain and maintain markets
direct response to the demand to tailor
technical assistance to countries’ needs
пѓ�not to merely provide 'generic' assistance
24
STDF
3 OIE STDF projects to date
пѓ�Train the trainers
пѓ�Tool for evaluation of veterinary services
пѓ�Strengthening veterinary services in Africa
(ALive)
25
Train the trainers
to train a cadre of professionals capable of
providing continuing training to private and
public sectors
пѓ�adapted to the conditions, cultures and languages
of each region
пѓ�for enhanced implementation of the SPS
Agreement
26
Train the trainers
training covers:
пѓ�SPS Agreement including dispute settlement
mechanisms, and the roles of the 3 sisters
пѓ�OIE standards, and its standard setting and
implementation process
пѓ�OIE animal health information system
пѓ�animal production food safety and collaboration
with Codex
пѓ�animal health risk analysis with practical examples
tailored to the region
пѓ�evaluation of veterinary services
27
Train the trainers
training will be adapted to animal health issues
of greatest interest in each region
initially, workshops will be attached to
�traditional’ WTO SPS workshops
aim to attract and prepare experts who are
assigned at the national level to promote
activities within OIE’s mandate
pilot workshops have developed training DVD
to be used as base material (Bamako, Bangkok,
Cairo, Vienna, Colombia)
28
Strengthening Vet Services in Africa
ALive (African Livestock), a World Bank
initiative focused on livestock in Africa, aims
to map existing programs and fill gaps
between them, and initiate others
пѓ�focused on poverty reduction, economic growth,
research, regional and international market access,
and sustainable institutions including Veterinary
Services
reinforces OIE’s involvement in promoting
animal health, both for poverty alleviation and
for the safe conduct of international trade in
animals and animal products
29
Strengthening Vet Services in Africa
the livestock sector in developing countries
requires greater financial and operational
challenges than other agricultural sectors
developed countries have a strong incentive to
help control developing countries’ livestock
diseases because of the likelihood of these
diseases spreading internationally
OIE is examining the use of ALive in all
Regions facing similar concerns
30
Building a scientific community
through twinning arrangements
several twinning arrangements are in place
between OIE reference laboratories
role of the OIE as coordinator/catalyst in these
arrangements
пѓ�selection of priorities
пѓ�selection of relevant laboratories
пѓ�mediator/facilitator in discussions
пѓ�evaluation of outputs
use of funds
пѓ�exchange of scientists
пѓ�organisation of workshops
31
Regional Representations
strengthening the OIE Regional Representations
пѓ� implementation of capacity building
programmes tailored to each Region
� direct input into OIE Headquarters’ activities
focuse on assisting new OIE Delegates
32
World organisation for animal health
Organisation mondiale de la santГ© animale
Organizacion Mundial de Sanidad Animal
12 rue de Prony
75017 Paris, France
Tel: + 33 (0)1 44 15 18 88 – Fax: + 33 (0)1 42 67 09 87
Email: oie@oie.int
http://www.oie.int
33
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