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History of Animal Agriculture - University of Missouri Extension

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History of the Animal
Science Industry
Early Domestication
• Humans began domesticating animals more
than 10,000 years ago beginning with dogs.
• Ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) were the
first food animals to be domesticated followed by
pigs, possibly to dispose of table scraps and
waste products.
• Horses and cattle were domesticated primarily
for transportation and draft work purposes.
• Early people found animals that form large herds
or flocks and eat a wide variety of feeds are
easier to domesticate.
Early Domestication
Domestication involves more than simply
taming. Animals are considered to be
domesticated when:
– they are kept for a distinct purpose
– humans control their breeding
– their survival depends on humans
– they develop traits that are not found in the
wild
Domestication
Domestication allowed humans to
• Contain animals with the right temperament
• Have a steady food supply
• Use animals for companionship, religious purposes and draft work
In return, the animals received protection and a constant
food supply.
Selective breeding occurred as humans got rid of animals
with undesirable traits, not allowing them to reproduce.
Which of these animals was
domesticated first?
List them in the order you think they were
domesticated on your notes page.
Cattle?
Goats?
Pigs?
Sheep?
Horses?
Chickens?
Turkeys?
What’s your guess?
Sheep: Domesticated 11,000-15,000 years ago
• Domesticated in the mountains of Southeast Europe and
Central/Southwest Asia. These areas include the countries of:
Greece, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Hungary, Uzbekistan, Syria
Yugoslavia, Turkmenistan, Iraq , Romania, Tajikistan
Bulgaria, Afghanistan and Iran
• Favorable because of their wool and meat for which they are still
used and bred today.
• Because of selective breeding for traits and other results of
domestication, sheep are the only species of livestock that would
be unable to return to the wild.
Cattle: Domesticated 10,000-15,000 years ago
• Domesticated near the boundary of Europe and Asia and/or
Southwest Asia
• This area includes the countries of: Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Syria,
Moldavia, Turkmenistan, Iran, Iraq
• In the beginning, cattle were used mainly for meat, milk and labor
but eventually were replaced by horses in most of the draft work.
Horses: Domesticated approx. 5,000 years ago
• Horses were domesticated in Eastern Europe
and Western Asia. This area includes the
countries of Mongolia and Siberia.
• Originally, horses were used for meat and milk,
but eventually became useful as pack and draft
animals.
Pigs: Domesticated 5,000 - 9,000 years ago
• Pigs were first domesticated in the Middle East
(Mesopotamia) in countries such as Syria, Iraq and
Turkey and then spread across Asia, Europe and
Africa.
• Pigs were utilized more in settled farming communities
than in nomadic groups because they are difficult to
move for long distances.
Animal Domestication
Goats
• The goat was among the earliest animals to be
domesticated, around 6000 - 7000 B.C. in Western Asia.
• The goat could easily revert to its wild state.
Chickens
• Chickens were known in China more than 3,400 years
ago and also in Southeast Asia (China, Laos, Vietnam,
Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines,
Burma)
Turkeys
• The turkey is the only North American domestic animal
and was domesticated in middle North America.
Use the information . . .
Use the notes we just took to draw a simple
timeline on your worksheet illustrating the
order in which animals were domesticated.
It might look something like this.
Present
What is animal science?
• Animal husbandry is the art of working with
farm animals.
• Animal science is the scientific study of farm
animals.
• Biology is the study of life that seeks to provide
an understanding of the natural world.
What is animal science?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Genetics
Embryology
Zoology
Botany
Agronomy
Anatomy
Physiology
Chemistry
Nutrition
Pathology
Parasitology
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Entomology
Bacteriology
Economics
Computer Science
Ethology
Ecology
Communications
Finance
Political Science
Law
Engineering
Microbiology
History of Animal Agriculture
in the United States
1493
1519
1539
1641
Columbus brought livestock to the West Indies
Cortez brought cattle and sheep to Mexico
DeSoto brought horses and hogs to Florida
William Pynchon, Massachusetts, was first meat
packer exporting salt pork
1760 Robert Bakewell, England, began breeding
animals for a purpose, created different types.
History of Animal Ag in U.S.
1861-1865 Changes occurred during the Civil War
–
–
Railroads decreased need for horses and mules
and for stock to be raised where they are consumed
Refrigeration in box cars allowed shipping of
carcasses to population centers
•
–
Now animals could be raised in one place, sold at another
and consumed at yet another.
Change in tastes – beef became most popular.
•
Before the war, pork was the most popular meat (mainly
due to ease of storage), but beef became the most popular
meat after the war because of refrigeration.
History of Animal Ag in U.S.
1862
1872
1914
Land Grant Act provides public
lands for universities to teach
agriculture
Hatch Act establishes experiment
stations
Smith Lever Act establishes
cooperative extension service
Animal Contributions to Society
Food
• Mutton and chevon are eaten by more people than any
other meat
• Beef is eaten in larger quantities than any other meat.
• Certain religions restrict beef and pork consumption
– Hindus do not eat beef.
– Muslim, Hind, and Orthodox Jews do not eat pork
• Many people eat horsemeat
• Goats, ewes, cattle, mares, sows, llamas, camels,
reindeer and yaks provide milk and milk products.
Animal Contributions to Society
Clothing
• Wool, hair, hides (leather), and pelts have
commonly been used for clothing.
• Even today, in more than 100 countries,
ruminant fibers such as hair and wool are
used in the manufacture of clothing,
bedding, housing and carpets.
Animal Contributions to Society
Shelter
• Hair and hides provide material for shelter. For example,
hides are used in teepees, while hair is used in plaster
(horsehair plaster).
Tools
• Early man relied on bones and hides for tools.
Utensils
• Bladders, horns, catgut and dynamite are animal
products that are commonly used.
Personal Items
• Humans use animal products or by-products for jewelry
and perfume.
Animal Contributions to Society
Power
• Animals have always been important throughout history
for draft work, packing and transporting humans. In the
1920s, more than 25 million horses were used primarily for
draft purposes.
• Today, in developing countries, animals provide as much
as 99% of the power used in agriculture while 20% of the
world's populations depend on animals for moving goods.
– India has more than 200 million cattle and buffalo, but because
cattle are sacred in India, they are not slaughtered for meat. These
animals are used to provide power for field work.
Animal Contributions to
Society
War
• Animals were used in war for transportation and power
Religion
• Some societies worship animals.
Recreation
• Companionship and hobbies or sports such as horseback
riding
Health
• Laboratory animals are commonly used for research.
• Miniature pigs have been used in laboratory research
because they closely resemble humans in their pulmonary,
cardiac, dental and even pre-natal brain development.
• Cattle and sheep have been used to test artificial organs
before use in humans.
• Humans also use animal products and by-products in
pharmaceuticals.
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