History of the Animal Science Industry Early Domestication вЂў Humans began domesticating animals more than 10,000 years ago beginning with dogs. вЂў Ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) were the first food animals to be domesticated followed by pigs, possibly to dispose of table scraps and waste products. вЂў Horses and cattle were domesticated primarily for transportation and draft work purposes. вЂў Early people found animals that form large herds or flocks and eat a wide variety of feeds are easier to domesticate. Early Domestication Domestication involves more than simply taming. Animals are considered to be domesticated when: вЂ“ they are kept for a distinct purpose вЂ“ humans control their breeding вЂ“ their survival depends on humans вЂ“ they develop traits that are not found in the wild Domestication Domestication allowed humans to вЂў Contain animals with the right temperament вЂў Have a steady food supply вЂў Use animals for companionship, religious purposes and draft work In return, the animals received protection and a constant food supply. Selective breeding occurred as humans got rid of animals with undesirable traits, not allowing them to reproduce. Which of these animals was domesticated first? List them in the order you think they were domesticated on your notes page. Cattle? Goats? Pigs? Sheep? Horses? Chickens? Turkeys? WhatвЂ™s your guess? Sheep: Domesticated 11,000-15,000 years ago вЂў Domesticated in the mountains of Southeast Europe and Central/Southwest Asia. These areas include the countries of: Greece, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Hungary, Uzbekistan, Syria Yugoslavia, Turkmenistan, Iraq , Romania, Tajikistan Bulgaria, Afghanistan and Iran вЂў Favorable because of their wool and meat for which they are still used and bred today. вЂў Because of selective breeding for traits and other results of domestication, sheep are the only species of livestock that would be unable to return to the wild. Cattle: Domesticated 10,000-15,000 years ago вЂў Domesticated near the boundary of Europe and Asia and/or Southwest Asia вЂў This area includes the countries of: Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Syria, Moldavia, Turkmenistan, Iran, Iraq вЂў In the beginning, cattle were used mainly for meat, milk and labor but eventually were replaced by horses in most of the draft work. Horses: Domesticated approx. 5,000 years ago вЂў Horses were domesticated in Eastern Europe and Western Asia. This area includes the countries of Mongolia and Siberia. вЂў Originally, horses were used for meat and milk, but eventually became useful as pack and draft animals. Pigs: Domesticated 5,000 - 9,000 years ago вЂў Pigs were first domesticated in the Middle East (Mesopotamia) in countries such as Syria, Iraq and Turkey and then spread across Asia, Europe and Africa. вЂў Pigs were utilized more in settled farming communities than in nomadic groups because they are difficult to move for long distances. Animal Domestication Goats вЂў The goat was among the earliest animals to be domesticated, around 6000 - 7000 B.C. in Western Asia. вЂў The goat could easily revert to its wild state. Chickens вЂў Chickens were known in China more than 3,400 years ago and also in Southeast Asia (China, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Burma) Turkeys вЂў The turkey is the only North American domestic animal and was domesticated in middle North America. Use the information . . . Use the notes we just took to draw a simple timeline on your worksheet illustrating the order in which animals were domesticated. It might look something like this. Present What is animal science? вЂў Animal husbandry is the art of working with farm animals. вЂў Animal science is the scientific study of farm animals. вЂў Biology is the study of life that seeks to provide an understanding of the natural world. What is animal science? вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Genetics Embryology Zoology Botany Agronomy Anatomy Physiology Chemistry Nutrition Pathology Parasitology вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Entomology Bacteriology Economics Computer Science Ethology Ecology Communications Finance Political Science Law Engineering Microbiology History of Animal Agriculture in the United States 1493 1519 1539 1641 Columbus brought livestock to the West Indies Cortez brought cattle and sheep to Mexico DeSoto brought horses and hogs to Florida William Pynchon, Massachusetts, was first meat packer exporting salt pork 1760 Robert Bakewell, England, began breeding animals for a purpose, created different types. History of Animal Ag in U.S. 1861-1865 Changes occurred during the Civil War вЂ“ вЂ“ Railroads decreased need for horses and mules and for stock to be raised where they are consumed Refrigeration in box cars allowed shipping of carcasses to population centers вЂў вЂ“ Now animals could be raised in one place, sold at another and consumed at yet another. Change in tastes вЂ“ beef became most popular. вЂў Before the war, pork was the most popular meat (mainly due to ease of storage), but beef became the most popular meat after the war because of refrigeration. History of Animal Ag in U.S. 1862 1872 1914 Land Grant Act provides public lands for universities to teach agriculture Hatch Act establishes experiment stations Smith Lever Act establishes cooperative extension service Animal Contributions to Society Food вЂў Mutton and chevon are eaten by more people than any other meat вЂў Beef is eaten in larger quantities than any other meat. вЂў Certain religions restrict beef and pork consumption вЂ“ Hindus do not eat beef. вЂ“ Muslim, Hind, and Orthodox Jews do not eat pork вЂў Many people eat horsemeat вЂў Goats, ewes, cattle, mares, sows, llamas, camels, reindeer and yaks provide milk and milk products. Animal Contributions to Society Clothing вЂў Wool, hair, hides (leather), and pelts have commonly been used for clothing. вЂў Even today, in more than 100 countries, ruminant fibers such as hair and wool are used in the manufacture of clothing, bedding, housing and carpets. Animal Contributions to Society Shelter вЂў Hair and hides provide material for shelter. For example, hides are used in teepees, while hair is used in plaster (horsehair plaster). Tools вЂў Early man relied on bones and hides for tools. Utensils вЂў Bladders, horns, catgut and dynamite are animal products that are commonly used. Personal Items вЂў Humans use animal products or by-products for jewelry and perfume. Animal Contributions to Society Power вЂў Animals have always been important throughout history for draft work, packing and transporting humans. In the 1920s, more than 25 million horses were used primarily for draft purposes. вЂў Today, in developing countries, animals provide as much as 99% of the power used in agriculture while 20% of the world's populations depend on animals for moving goods. вЂ“ India has more than 200 million cattle and buffalo, but because cattle are sacred in India, they are not slaughtered for meat. These animals are used to provide power for field work. Animal Contributions to Society War вЂў Animals were used in war for transportation and power Religion вЂў Some societies worship animals. Recreation вЂў Companionship and hobbies or sports such as horseback riding Health вЂў Laboratory animals are commonly used for research. вЂў Miniature pigs have been used in laboratory research because they closely resemble humans in their pulmonary, cardiac, dental and even pre-natal brain development. вЂў Cattle and sheep have been used to test artificial organs before use in humans. вЂў Humans also use animal products and by-products in pharmaceuticals.