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HOW PERCEPTIONS OF BEAUTY AND OTHER ELEMENTS OF

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HOW PERCEPTIONS OF
BEAUTY AND OTHER
ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL LIFE
CAN COMBINE TO FORM AN
ASCRIBED STATUS WHICH
LIMITS MOBILITY
“THE RULE OF FATHERS”
A FORM OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION IN
WHICH MALES DOMINATE FEMALES
• MATRIARCHY
– SOCIAL DOMINANCE BY WOMEN
• SEXISM
– BELIEF THAT ONE SEX OR THE OTHER IS
INNATELY INFERIOR OR SUPERIOR
– UNTOLD LOSSES WHEN CONSIDERING HOW MUCH
TALENT HAS BEEN LOCKED OUT
• INEVITABILITY OF PATRIARCHY
– IS BIOLOGY DESTINY? SHOULD WOMEN RULE?
– MARGARET MEAD’S RESEARCH
THE SOCIALIZATION
PROCESS AND GENDER
WHAT IS FEMININE AND MASCULINE?
HOW DO WE ACQUIRE SUCH DISTINCTIONS?
SOCIALIZATION
AND GENDER
The Israeli Kibbutz
A small community where all work is theoretically shared equally
Margaret Mead
Gender conceptions vary in New Guinea; Arapesh, Mundugumor
and the Tchambuli.
George Murdock
General role assignment when studying 200 pre-industrial
societies, but much variety beyond this.
THE SOCIALIZATION
PROCESS AND GENDER
WHAT IS FEMININE AND MASCULINE?
Talcott Parsons page 347
Complemetary set of roles:
Men are socialized for the labor force, to be rational, selfassured, and competitive. Instrumental qualities
Women are socialized for child rearing and raising the family,
stressing emotional responsiveness and sensitivity to others.
Expressive qualities
IT STARTS IN THE FAMILY
• SELECTIVE ABORTION
– SOCIAL VALUE AND DEATH
• IS IT A BOY OR GIRL?
– COLOR-CODING GENDER
• HANDLING OF CHILDREN
– BE A GOOD “LITTLE MAN”
• IT’S OK TO BE A TOM-BOY
– WHY WOULDN’T A GIRL
WANT TO BE A BOY?
– BUT, WHAT IF A BOY ACTS
TOO MUCH LIKE A GIRL?
• PEER GROUPS USE NORMATIVE
CONCEPTIONS OF GENDER
– PRESSURES TO TAKE PART IN BEHAVIORS THAT
ARE NORMATIVE TO AGE AND GENDER
• PLAYING GAMES
– BOYS AND “VICTORY” TEAM SPORTS
• TEACHES COMPETITION, RULES, WINNING
– GIRLS AND “COOPERATIVE” GAMING
• GAMES TEACH INTERPERSONAL SKILLS AND THE VALUE
OF SHARING AND COOPERATION
THE MEDIA
• WHITE MALES HAVE
CENTER STAGE
• MINORITIES OF ALL
KINDS MINIMIZED Still?
• WOMEN RECEIVE
ROLES BASED ON SEX
APPEAL
• THE “BEAUTY MYTH”
– EATING DISORDERS
– EMOTIONAL STRESS
– IDEAL IMAGING
• ALMOST 60% OF ALL WOMEN WORK
OUTSIDE OF THE HOME
• ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT AND SERVICE
SECTOR JOBS MAKE UP THE TYPE OF
WORK DONE BY ONE-HALF OF ALL
WORKING WOMEN
• MANY WOMEN RETURN HOME FROM
WORK TO BEGIN THEIR “SECOND SHIFT”
• ON AVERAGE, WOMEN EARN 71 CENTS
FOR EVERY DOLLAR EARNED BY MEN
(1992)
– LARGELY DUE TO TYPE OF WORK DONE
• CORPORATE WOMEN AND THE GLASS
CEILING
• RECENTLY, 20% OF RICHEST AMERICANS
IDENTIFIED BY FORBES WERE WOMEN
Gender and Violence
• Forcible rape - each
year, 2-3 of every
1000 females over age
12 are raped in the
U.S.
• Violence in the
Home- women are the
typical victims of
family violence.
• Women in the
Criminal Justice
System - women are
much less likely to
kill, but when they do,
judges are much more
likely to give lenient
sentences.
IN WHAT WAYS
MIGHT AMERICAN TRADITIONS
CLOAK WOMEN IN A SHROUD OF LIMITATIONS?
• GIVEN THE ECONOMIC REALITIES,
WOMEN CERTAINLY CAN QUALIFY
• AT ALL LEVELS IN THE CLASS
SYSTEM, WOMEN HAVE:
–
–
–
–
LESS INCOME
LESS WEALTH
LESS EDUCATION, AND
LESS POWER THAN MEN
• PATRIARCHY PROVIDES WOMEN
WITH A DIMINISHED SOCIAL
STANDING
• Intersection theory- page 342
FEMINISM IN AMERICA
ITS MOST BASIC PRINCIPLES
• IMPORTANCE OF CHANGE
– IT IS CRITICAL
• EXPANSION OF HUMAN CHOICE
– NO RESTRICTIONS ON POTENTIAL
• NO GENDER STRATIFICATION
– EQUALITY UNDER THE LAW
• ENDING SEXUAL VIOLENCE
– DISTORTS RELATIONSHIPS
• SEXUAL AUTONOMY
– CONTROL OVER REPRODUCTION
• LIBERAL FEMINISM
– HUMANITARIAN-LIKE THINKING
• SOCIALIST FEMINISM
– BELIEF IN SOCIALIST REVOLUTION
• RADICAL FEMINISM
– ELIMINATE IDEA OF GENDER
– EGALITARIAN, GENDER-FREE
REVOLUTION
• OPPOSITION TO FEMINISM
– MOST IS DIRECTED TOWARD SOCIALIST
AND RADICAL FEMINIST GROUPS
– GENERALLY, MEN DO NOT WANT TO GIVE
UP THEIR STATUS. WHO REALLY WOULD?
Figure 13.1
Men’s and Women’s Athletic Performance
Applying Theory
Gender
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