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Sport Management

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Sport Management
• Defining Sport and Sport Management
• Scope of Sport Industry
• Sport Industry Models
– Product Type
– Economic Impact Model
– Sport Activity Model
• How is Sport Management Unique
• Future Challenges
Sport: Defined
Sport can be work (professional athlete), a
means of employment (sports tourism
director), or a business (sport marketing
agency).
Sport: Defined
Sport has five characteristics:
•
•
•
•
•
Play-like in nature
Involves some competition
Based on physical prowess
Has elements of skill, strategy, and chance
Has an uncertain outcome
Loy (1968)
So are there “sports” that don’t fit this definition?
Sport: Further Defined
Competitive physical activity, utilizing specialized
equipment and facilities, with unique dimensions
of time and space, in which the quest for records
is of high significance (VanderZwaag, 1998)
Is institutionalized competitive activity that involves
rigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively
complex physical skills by participants motivated
by personal enjoyment and external rewards
(Coakley, 2001)
Sport Management: Defined
Any combination of skills related to planning
organizing, directing, controlling,
budgeting, leading, and evaluating within
the context of an organization or
department whose primary product or
service is related to sport or physical
activity (Desensi, et al., 1990)
Sport Industry: Scope
• School/College Academic
program
• Professional Sport
• Amateur Sport
• Private Club Sport
• Commercial Sport
Environments
• Arenas, Stadia, etc
• Community Rec Program
• Industrial Sport Program
• Sport in Social Agencies
• Military
• Sport Marketing and
Consulting
• Developmental Programs
(Sports Foundations)
• Corporate Sponsorship
• Sporting Goods
• Sports Media
• Academia
Sport Management Components:
How do they fit together ?
• Industrial Models
– Product Type Model (Pitts, Fielding, & Miller,
1994)
– Economic Impact Model (Meek, 1997)
– Sport Activity Model (Li, Hofacre, & Mahoney,
2001)
Product Type Model (Pitts, Fielding,
& Miller, 1994)
Performance
Offered to consumer
as a participant or
spectator
Athletics
- Amateur, Professional
Private Sport
Tax Supported Sport
Membership Supported
Sport
Non-Profit Sport
Sport Education
Fitness and Sport Firms
Production
Promotion
Needed to influence the
quality of sport performance
Tools to promote the
Sport product
Outfitting Products
- Equipment, apparel
Performance Production
- Fitness trainer
- medical care
- Sports Facilities
- Governing Bodies
Promotional merchandising
products
Promotional events
Media
Sponsorship
Endorsements
Economic Impact Model (Meek,
1997)
Sport
Entertainment
Staging
Marketing
Events
Sport Support
Organizations
Sport Products
Management
Trade Shows
Market Anal
Pro
Amatuer
R&D
Procurement
Athletes
Manufacture
Sport
Teams
Pro/Am
Hotel
Distribution
Soft Goods
Tourism
Restaurants
Media
TV
Radio
Internet
Publications
Services
Retail
Active footwear
Active Sportswear
Hard Goods
Economic Impact Model (Meek,
1997)
Associated economic impact which is
monies spent by sports participants,
spectators, and sponsors
1995: Sport industry economic size for $152
billions with an additional $259 billion in
economic activity generated by sport.
Sport Activity Model (Li, Hofacre, &
Mahoney, 2001)
• Proposed a model based on the single
characteristic that differentiates the sport
industry from other industries: sport
activities
– Firms and organizations that produce sport
activities
– Firms and organizations that provide products and
services to support sport activities
– Firms and organizations that sell and trade products
that support sport activities
Sport Activity Model (Li, Hofacre, &
Mahoney, 2001)
Support Sector VI
State, Municipal
Sport Councils &
Authorities
Support Sector V
Sport Management
(marketing, public
Relations, events,
Agents)
Support Sector I
Administration &
Regulatory bodies
SPORT PRODUCING SECTOR
Professional and semi-pro teams
Intercollegiate teams
Municipal and County Recreations
Sport/Fitness Clubs
Independent Sport Entities
(e.g., personal trainers)
Support Sector IV
Sport Media
Support Sector II
Sport Goods
Manufacture
Wholesale & Retail
Support Sector III
Facilities and
Buildings
Unique features of Sport Management:
A couple of examples
• Sport Marketing
– Sport consumed as quickly as produced
– Not accompanied by guarantees of
satisfaction
Unique features of Sport Management:
A couple of examples
• Financial Structures
– Revenues are generated from activities
extraneous to the primary source of interest
(the event) such as television rights,
concessions, road games returns, parking
– Colleges such as A&M use students fees,
private donations, taxes, rentals, or licensing
fees.
Sports need to attract individuals that are often willing to spend more money for
peripherals items than on the event itself –
this presents a rather unique circumstance for the sport manager
Unique features of Sport Management:
A couple of examples
• Social Institution
– Sport offers a distinctive social activity that
can be the basis of an individual’s or group’s
social identity
• Managers social responsibility in marketing,
promoting
Future Issues for Sport
Management
• Infusion of technology
– Changes in sport delivery
• Ethics
–
–
–
–
Gender, race and class issues
Academic integrity and sport
Preparation of athletes (youth sports and beyond)
Owner’s, player’s, and fan’s loyalties
• Social Responsibility
– Advertising and sponsorships
– Tax payers and facilities
– Sport gambling
Not too far removed from some of the issues discussed in
Sport Psychology section
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