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Ch. 22 Power Point

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Chapter 22
Review and Discussion
Moscow Rises In Power
1. During the Mongol period,
the princes of Moscow
steadily increased their
power.
2. The Russian Orthodox
moves to Moscow
eventually the seat of
power is moved there.
3. Moscow became the
“Third Rome”
Ivan the Great: First Tsar
• Ivan III, refused to pay Mongol
tribute
• Won many battles and recovered
lost territory
• Suppressed boyar powers
• claimed the leadership of the
Eastern Orthodox Empire
• Took the title czar (tsar) the
Russian word for Caesar
• Recruited peasants and other them
freedom from their feudal lords if
they agreed to settle in New lands
to the East
Ivan IV
aka
Ivan the Terrible!
• Grandson of Ivan the Great
• Ruled from 1547-1584
Why Terrible?
• he resorted to torture, exile,
and execution to punish those
who plotted against him
• Significantly expanded Russia’s
territory and Russia prospered!
His Family….
Tragic, read on…
• In 1582 his daughter-in-law Elena appeared immodestly
dressed and Ivan censured her.
• His son Ivan Ivanovich rose to defend his wife,
whereupon the tsar killed his son, his only possible
respectable heir.
• This left as heir Ivan’s feebleminded son Fyodor (reigned
1584-1598), the last Ryurikid ruler in a line that
extended back seven centuries.
• Another son, Dmitry, was considered illegitimate because
his mother was Ivan's seventh wife (the church only
permitted three marriages, and recognized none of
Ivan’s later wives).
• Dmitry either killed himself playing with a knife or was
murdered in 1591
St. Basil’s Cathedral
•Legend has it that
Ivan the Terrible, who
was Tsar of Russia at
the time,
blinded the architect
when it was finished,
to prevent him from
building anything as
spectacular for any
other king.
Late Medieval Russia
Russia is in a Period
of disorder:
• Open to invasion
• Isolated from
Europe
• Untouched by
Renaissance or
the Reformation
• Enters the “Time
of Troubles” 1604-1613
Russian Monarchy
Medieval Russia
• group of clergy,
nobles and townsmen
chose a new czar
• Romanov dynasty
established with
Romanov Crown
Mikhail Romanov
• lasts until 1917 with
the Communist
Revolution.
Mikhail
Romanov
Russia Before Peter
Look at the facts:
•
•
•
•
10 million people, 8.5 serfs
Boyars (landowning nobles) control the
court and government
Very Anti-Western European culture
Majority of population are uneducated
The Westernization of Russia
• Goals
– To modernize, westernize
Russia
– Establish absolute monarchy
• Journeyed to Western
Europe to learn…
–
–
–
–
Anatomy
Dentistry
Carpenter in shipyard
Government structure of
English Parliament
• Brought Experts to Russia
– Technical experts, teachers,
soldiers, and nobles
Peter the Great
• Built a new capital at St. Petersburg and committed
to a policy of westernization in Russia.
•To impose his will, Peter became the most
autocratic of Europe’s absolute monarchs.
• No to political liberalization
•Brought Russian Orthodox Church under his control
and increased the burden of taxes and labor on the serfs
“Great Northern War”
пЃ¬ broke Swedish control over the Baltic and
established direct contact between Russia and
Europe
Peter the Great’s
Major Changes
Requires
European
Dress & No
Beards!
Took
control
of
church
Westernization
of Russia
Made the
boyars
serve in
the gov’t
Modernized
army
Adopts
Mercantilism
Builds St.
Petersburg
Brought in
Europe’s
Technology
and
Craftsman
Catherine the Great
r. 1762-1796
• Born in 1729 in Germany
today modern day Poland
• Gains the throne by
“stealing it” (maybe)
from her murdered
husband, Peter III!
•began state-sponsored
education for boys and
girls.
• embraced and
encouraged Western ideas
and culture.
• granted special
privileges to the boyars.
• Allows serfdom to
continue
• repressed peasant
rebellions.
•Built the world’s largest
land empire
Catherine’s
Palace
Expansion of Russia,
1689-1796
Peter the Great:
• created the largest standing army in
Europe
• On land won from Sweden, Peter built a
magnificent new capital city, St.
Petersburg.
Catherine the Great:
1. gained a warm-water port on the Black
Sea
2. agreed to partition Poland and gained the
eastern portion.
St. Petersburg
Romanov Dynasty
Heritage
Last Romanov Czar
Murdered w/ family in 1917
Expansion of Russia,
1689 – 1796
Decline of the late Ming
• Drop in annual temperatures between 1645 and
1700
– Led to agricultural distress, migration, distress, and
uprising
• Inflation caused by new world silver
• Threats in the borders
– From Mongols to the north and west
– Suffered heavy losses by helping Koreans against
Japanese invasions
– Japanese pirates
• Qing (Manchu) overthrew the Ming in 1644
Qing China
Emperor Kangxi
Emperor Kangxi r. 1662-1722
• Intellectual prodigy and a successful military
commander who expanded his territory and gave it
a high degree of stability
• Reign of 61 years makes him the longest reigning
Emperor of China
• Cultural diffusion
• adapted Mongol system of political organization;
the Tibetan practice of religious legitimization for
rulers; Korean and Chinese agricultural policies; and
European mapping and technology ( influenced by
the Jesuits).
Order and Unity Restored
Under the Tokugawas,1603-1868
•
The Tokugawa shogunate
was the longest period of
uninterrupted peace
Japan ever enjoyed.
Kabuki Theater
пЃµ
пЃµ
пЃµ
пЃµ
Created by Okuni, a
woman but actors are now
all men, why?
Tokugawa disapproved of
women having an elevated
status and forbid it!
Kabuki theater is famous
for its brightly colored
sets, exaggerated acting,
and lively and emotional
music and dance.
Kabuki is the most popular
form of traditional
Japanese theater.
Kabuki Theater Tour
Kabuki Theater
http://www.fix.co.jp/kabuki/kabuki.html
Bunraku
•Bunraku (puppet theater)
traditional art form
•Three puppeteers
manipulate the puppets,
creating subtle
movements and
expressions.
•The performance is
accompanied by shamisen
music and narrative song
Review:
The Culture of Feudal Japan
THEATER
No plays presented Zen
Buddhist themes or
recounted fairy tales or
power struggles.
Kabuki, a popular new
form of drama,
combined drama, dance,
and music.
Puppet plays, known as
bunraku, were popular.
LITERATURE
Essays expressed Zen
values or contained
observations about
human nature.
Japanese poets
adapted Chinese
models, creating
miniature poems called
haiku.
PAINTING &
PRINTMAKING
Japanese painters were
influenced by Chinese
landscape paintings, yet
developed their own
styles.
Painters recreated
historical events on
scrolls.
Woodblock prints used
fresh colors and simple
lines to convey town
life.
“Forty-seven Ronin” incident 1702
• Showed basic flaw in the Shogunal
government
• Forced the military, to obey the civil law in the
interests of building a centralized,
standardized system of law (transformed from
a military to a civil society)
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