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I. Adrenergic Nervous System: Overview

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I. Adrenergic Nervous
System: Overview
Uses adrenaline (epinephrine) and
noradrenaline (norepinephrine) as
neurotransmitters
OH
OH
HO
NHMe
HO
NH2
HO
HO
E pinephrine
(A drenaline)
N orepinephrine
(N oradrenaline)
1. Nerve Transmission
Peripheral nervous system
Skeletal
muscle
CNS
(Somatic)
Ach
(N)
CNS
(Autonomic)
Synapse
Ach (N)
NA
Sympathetic
Adrenaline
Parasympathetic
Ach
(N)
Adrenal
medulla
AUTONOMIC
Synapse
Ach
(N)
Ach
(M)
Smooth muscle
Cardiac muscle
http://www.sickkids.on.ca/childphysiology/cpwp/Urinary/kidney.swf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrenal_gland
Fight or Flight?
•
The fight-or-flight response, also called the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon
in 1929. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous
system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. This response was later recognized as the first stage of a
general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms.
•
Normally, when a person is in a serene, unstimulated state, the "firing" of neurons in the locus ceruleus is
minimal. A novel stimulus (which could include a perception of danger or an environmental stressor signal
such as elevated sound levels or over-illumination), once perceived, is relayed from the sensory cortex of
the brain through the thalamus to the brain stem. That route of signaling increases the rate of noradrenergic
activity in the locus ceruleus, and the person becomes alert and attentive to the environment. Similarly, an
abundance of catecholamines at neuroreceptor sites facilitates reliance on spontaneous or intuitive
behaviors often related to combat or escape.If a stimulus is perceived as a threat, a more intense and
prolonged discharge of the locus ceruleus activates the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous
system (Thase & Howland, 1995). This activation is associated with specific physiological actions in the
system, both directly and indirectly through the release of epinephrine (adrenaline) and to a lesser extent
norepinephrine from the medulla of the adrenal glands. The release is triggered by acetylcholine released
from preganglionic sympathetic nerves. The other major player in the acute stress response is the
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
Fight or Flight Response:
•
These catecholamine hormones facilitate immediate physical reactions
associated with a preparation for violent muscular action. (Gleitman, et
al, 2004). These include the following:
•
пЅҐAcceleration of heart and lung actionпЅҐInhibition of stomach and
intestinal action
пЅҐConstriction of blood vessels in many parts of the body
пЅҐLiberation of nutrients for muscular action
пЅҐDilation of blood vessels for muscles
пЅҐInhibition of tear glands and salivation
пЅҐDilation of pupil
пЅҐRelaxation of bladder
пЅҐInhibition of erection
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Adrenergic Receptors
•
In 1948, adrenergic receptors were subdivided into alpha and beta by Ahlquist.
The distinction was based on sensitivities of different organs to catecholamines of
closely related structure. Regulation of the functions of different organs depends to
a greater or lesser extent on alpha or beta receptors.
•
Alpha receptors are located postsynaptically at sympathetic neuroeffector junctions
of many organs. In general, alpha receptors mediate excitation or increased
activity of the effector cells. Vascular smooth muscle is an important site of alpha
receptors. SNS activity maintains vascular tone, and thus blood pressure, by
maintaining a tone of neurotransmitter on vascular alpha receptors.
•
Beta receptors are also located postsynaptically at sympathetic neuroeffector
junctions of many organs. In general, beta receptors mediate relaxation or
decreased activity of the effector cells. Thus, blood vessels dilate and uterine
smooth muscle relaxes in response to activation of beta receptors. Heart muscle is
an important exception to this rule. Activation of beta adrenoceptors in heart
increases the automaticity and contractility of all parts of the heart.
Types of пЃЎ-adrenergic receptor
п‚• пЃЎ-adrenergic receptors are adrenergic receptors
that respond to norepinephrine and to such blocking
agents as phenoxybenzamine.
• They are subdivided into two types:
п‚• пЃЎ1, found in smooth muscle, heart, and liver, with
effects including vasoconstriction, intestinal
relaxation, uterine contraction and pupillary dilation,
п‚• пЃЎ2, found in platelets, vascular smooth muscle,
nerve termini, and pancreatic islets, with effects
including platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, and
inhibition of norepinephrine release and of insulin
secretion.
пЃў-receptor types
п‚• пЃў-adrenergic receptors respond particularly
to epinephrine and to such blocking agents
as propranolol.
• There are three known types of beta receptor,
designated ОІ1, ОІ2 and ОІ3.
• β1-Adrenergic receptors are located mainly in
the heart.
• β2-Adrenergic receptors are located mainly in
the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver, uterus,
vascular smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle.
• β3-receptors are located in fat cells.
What do the receptors do?
Activation of пЃЎ receptors leads to smooth muscle contraction
Activation of пЃў2 receptors leads to smooth muscle relaxation
Activation of пЃў1 receptors leads to smooth muscle
contraction (especially in heart)
Clinical Utility of drugs which affect the adrenergic nervous
system:
a.
Agonists of the пЃў2 receptors are used in the
treatment of asthma (relaxation of the smooth muscles of
the bronchi)
b.
Antagonists of the пЃў1 receptors are used in the
treatment of hypertension and angina (slow heart and
reduce force of contraction)
c.
Antagonists of the пЃЎ1 receptors are known to
cause lowering of the blood pressure (relaxation of smooth
muscle and dilation of the blood vessels)
Definitions
• Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions typically function in
opposition to each other. But this opposition is better termed
complementary in nature rather than antagonistic. For an analogy, one
may think of the sympathetic division as the accelerator and the
parasympathetic division as the brake.
•
The sympathetic division typically functions in actions requiring quick
responses.
• The parasympathetic division functions with actions that do not require
immediate reaction.
• Consider sympathetic as "fight or flight" and parasympathetic as "rest
and digest".
OH
OH
HO
NHMe
HO
NH2
HO
HO
E pinephrine
(A drenaline)
N orepinephrine
(N oradrenaline)
•Epinephrine (INN) (IPA: [ˌɛpɪˈnɛfrən]) or adrenaline (European Pharmacopoeia and BAN)
(IPA: [Й™Л€drЙ›nЙ™lЙ™n]), sometimes spelled "epinephrin" or "adrenalin" respectively, is a hormone.
It is a catecholamine, a sympathomimetic monoamine derived from the amino acids
phenylalanine and tyrosine.
•The Latin roots ad-+renes and the Greek roots epi-+nephros both literally mean "on/to the
kidney" (referring to the adrenal gland, which secretes epinephrine). Epinephrine is
sometimes shortened to epi in medical jargon.
•Epinephrine is now also used in EpiPens and Twinjects. EpiPens are long narrow autoinjectors that administer epinephrine, Twinjects are similar but contain two doses of
epinephrine. Though both EpiPen and Twinject are trademark names, common usage of the
terms are drifting toward the generic context of any epinephrine autoinjector.
http://www.maxanim.com/biochemistry/Epinephrine/Epin
ephrine.htm
EpiPen
EpiPen is a registered trademark for the most commonly used autoinjector of
epinephrine (aka adrenaline), used in medicine to treat anaphylactic shock.
http://www.epipen.com/howtouse_high.aspx
Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis is a severe and rapid multi-system allergic reaction. The term comes from the
Greek words ana (against) and phyllus (protection). Anaphylaxis occurs when a person is
exposed to a trigger substance, called an allergen, to which they have already become
sensitized. Minute amounts of allergens may cause a life-threatening anaphylactic reaction.
Anaphylaxis may occur after ingestion, inhalation, skin contact or injection of an allergen.
The most severe type of anaphylaxis—anaphylactic shock—will usually lead to death in
minutes if left untreated.
Most common presentation is sudden cardiovascular collapse (88% of reported cases of
severe anaphylaxis).
Anaphylactic shock
Anaphylactic shock, the most serious of allergic reactions, is a life-threatening medical
emergency because of rapid constriction of the airway, often within minutes of onset. Calling
for help immediately is important, as brain and organ damage rapidly occurs if the patient
cannot breathe. Anaphylactic shock requires immediate advanced medical care; but other
first aid measures include rescue breathing (part of CPR) and administration of epinephrine
(adrenaline). Rescue breathing may be hindered by the constricted airways but is essential
if the victim stops breathing on their own. If the patient has previously been diagnosed with
anaphylaxis, they may be carrying an EpiPen (or similar device) for immediate
administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) by a layperson to help keep the airway open. Use
of an EpiPen or similar device will only provide temporary and limited relief of symptoms, so
emergency medical services must still be contacted. Repetitive administration of
epinephrine can cause tachycardia (rapid heartbeat) and occasionally ventricular
tachycardia with heart rates potentially reaching 240 beats per minute, which can also be
fatal. Extra doses of epinephrine can sometimes cause cardiac arrest. This is why some
protocols advise intramuscular injection of only 0.3–0.5mL of a 1:1,000 dilution. The
epinephrine will prevent worsening of the airway constriction, stimulate the heart to continue
beating, and may be life-saving.
Ephinephrine can be injected directly into the heart to stimulate it
after it as stopped beating due to drowning, suffocation, shock,
electrocution, and anesthesia. The epinephrine dramatically restores
the heart beat. In cases of shock, norepinephrine has been used to
restore and maintain sufficient blood pressure and ensure adequate
blood flow to vital organs.
When local anesthetics are used to reduce or eliminate pain in a
specific area, epinephrine is frequently used in conjunction with
these agents to constrict the blood vessels at the area and prevent
drug diffusion from that area
1. Nerve Transmission
Peripheral nervous system
Skeletal
muscle
CNS
(Somatic)
Ach
(N)
CNS
(Autonomic)
Synapse
Ach (N)
NA
Sympathetic
Adrenaline
Parasympathetic
Ach
(N)
Adrenal
medulla
AUTONOMIC
Synapse
Ach
(N)
Ach
(M)
Smooth muscle
Cardiac muscle
п‚· Norad r enaline r eleased at
junction
smooth muscle and card
iac muscle
of nerve
with
п‚· Adrenaline
relea s ed by a drenal medulla and
circulates through blood
supply (stimulates
heart,
for exampl e )
п‚· These two neurot
neurotransmitter
r ansmitters
act opposite
a ce tylc h oline
the
Endocrine Glands (general)
• http://pennhealth.com/health_info/anima
tionplayer/endocrine_glands.html
Adrenal Gland
• http://health.howstuffworks.com/adam200053.htm
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Illu_a
drenal_gland.jpg
• http://www.answers.com/topic/adrenalgland
Biosynthesis of norepinephrine and epinephrine
NH2
C O 2H
HO
HO
T y ro sin e
hyd ro x y lase
NH2
C O 2H
HO
L -T y ro sine
HO
D o pa
D ecarb o xy lase
NH2
HO
D o pam ine
L ev od op a
OH
OH
D o p am in e
пЃў -h yd rox y lase
HO
HO
NH2
N -m eth y l transferase
(in A d ren al m ed ulla)
HO
N orep in ep hrin e
(N oradren aline)
NHMe
HO
E pinep hrine
(A d renalin e)
Metabolism involves two key enzymes:
MAO and COMT
OH
HO
OH
NH2
M on oam ine O xidase
HO
(M A O )
OH
NH
HO
H 2O
HO
O
HO
HO
U n stable Im in e
N orepinephrine
(N o radrenaline)
OH
OH
HO
O
OH
HO
C atech ol-O -M eth yl
T ransferase
C H 3O
O
OH
(C O M T )
HO
The design of a drug to treat
asthma
•
Asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory system in which the airway
occasionally constricts, becomes inflamed, and is lined with excessive amounts
of mucus, often in response to one or more triggers. These acute episodes may
be triggered by such things as exposure to an environmental stimulant (or
allergen), cold air, exercise or exertion, or emotional stress. In children, the most
common triggers are viral illnesses such as those that cause the common
cold.[1] This airway narrowing causes symptoms such as wheezing, shortness
of breath, chest tightness, and coughing, which respond to bronchodilators.
Between episodes, most patients feel fine.The disorder is a chronic or recurring
inflammatory condition in which the airway develops increased responsiveness
to various stimuli, characterized by bronchial hyper-responsiveness,
inflammation, increased mucus production, and intermittent airway obstruction.
The symptoms of asthma, which can range from mild to life threatening, can
usually be controlled with a combination of drugs and environmental
changes.Public attention in the developed world has recently focused on asthma
because of its rapidly increasing prevalence, affecting up to one in four urban
children.[2]
What is asthma?
• http://www.1on1health.com/web/info/asthma/english/asthmaanimation/AnimationPage/LookListenLearnType=1
• http://www.whatsasthma.org/flash/hasthmav.html
• http://www.healthcentral.com/animation/408/46.html
What is COPD?
http://allergy.health.ivillage.com/animations/show_animations.
cfm?cmbtopics=210
http://www.exploriaproductions.com/movies/IVAX_320x240.mov
COPD
•
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic
obstructive airway disease (COAD), is a group of diseases characterised by
limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible. COPD is the
umbrella term for chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. It is most often due to
tobacco smoking [1] but can be due to other airborne irritants such as coal dust
or solvents.
Chronic Bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis is defined in clinical terms as a cough with sputum production on most days for 3 months of a
year, for 2 consecutive years.[6]
Chronic bronchitis is hallmarked by the increased number (hyperplasia) and increased size (hypertrophy) of the
mucus-secreting (goblet) cells of the airway. This, along with enlargement of the mucous gland, results in an
increase in production of mucus which contributes to the airway obstruction. Microscopically there is infiltration of
the airway walls with inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils. Inflammation is followed by scarring and
remodelling that thickens the walls resulting in narrowing of the small airway. Further progression leads to an
abnormal change (metaplasia) in the nature of the tissue along with further thickening and scarring (fibrosis) of the
lower airway. The consequence of these changes is a limitation of airflow. [7]
Emphysema
Main article: Emphysema
Emphysema is defined histologically as the enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, with
destruction of their walls.[6]
The enlarged air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs reduces the surface area available for the movement of gases during
respiration. This can cause breathlessness in severe cases. The exact mechanism for the development of
emphysema is not understood, although it it known to be linked with smoking and age.
Historically, what therapeutic
agents have been used?
• Ephedrine, as part of the Chinese medicine
Ma Huang, has been used in the treatment of
respiratory diseases for over 5000 years
• Ephedrine is now known to act indirectly, by
releasing endogenous catecholamines,
resulting in bronchodilation
• In 1900, Solis-Cohen showed that orally
administered adrenal extract was beneficial in
asthma.
Historic
• Initially, subcutaneous injections of
epinephrine were used, followed by a
nebulized epinephrine solution.
• Epinephrine is one of the most potent
vasopressor (i.e. causes constriction of the
blood vessels and corresponding rise in blood
pressure) drugs known.
• Epinephrine affects respiration primarily by
relaxing the bronchial muscle.
• Epinephrine is rapidly metabolized by COMT,
primarily in the liver.
Can we make an asthma drug with less side
effects, and longer lasting?
• Clues:
• It is known that the 2 receptor is the target
for relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle.
• Epinephrine has approx. equal affinity for
both пЃЎ and пЃў receptors
• However norepinephrine has greater affinity
for the пЃЎ receptors
• This indicates that placing an alkyl group on
the nitrogen leads to an increase in selectivity
for the пЃў-receptors.
OH
OH
HO
NHMe
HO
NH2
HO
HO
E pinephrine
(A drenaline)
Equal selectivity for
Both пЃЎпЂ and пЃў-receptors
N orepinephrine
(N oradrenaline)
Greater selectivity for
пЃЎпЂ­receptors
Perhaps, still greater selectivity for пЃў-receptors could be
Generated by appending larger alkyl substituent on nitrogen
An improvement!
OH
HO
H
N
HO
Iso pren aline
• Isoprenaline was synthesized by German
chemists in the 1940’s
• It had less cardiovacular side effects than
adrenaline
• Became the most widely used inhaled
treatment for asthma for the next 20 years.
Further improvements
needed
• Needed an agent which was longer
lasting, more resistant to COMT
• Needed an agent which was more
selective for the пЃў2 receptors in the lung
and less selective for the пЃў1 receptors of
heart.
Arrives Salbutamol
OH
HOCH2
H
N
HO
S alb u tam o l
• Tert-butyl group renders salbutamol more
selective for пЃў2
• Hydroxymethyl group (in place of OH)
renders salbutamol resistant to COMT
• Remains the most widely used anti-asthma
drug in the world
Salbutamol
• Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN) is a short-acting β2adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm
in conditions such as asthma and COPD.Salbutamol sulphate
is usually given by the inhaled route for direct effect on bronchial
smooth muscle. This is usually achieved through a metered
dose inhaler (MDI), nebuliser or other proprietary delivery
devices (e.g. Rotahaler or Autohaler). In these forms of delivery,
the effect of Salbutamol can take place within 5 to 20 minutes of
dosing. Salbutamol can also be given orally or intravenously.
However, some asthmatics may not respond to these
medications as they will not have the required DNA base
sequence in a specific gene.Salbutamol became available in the
United Kingdom in 1969 and in the United States in 1980 under
the trade name Ventolin.
OH
HOCH2
H
N
O
HO
S alm eterol
Salmeterol is a long-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist drug that is currently
prescribed for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COPD. It is currently available in both dry-powder inhalers (DPIs) and pressurised
metered dose inhalers (pMDIs).
It is a long acting beta-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA), usually only prescribed for
severe persistent asthma following previous treatment with a short-acting beta
agonist such as salbutamol and is prescribed concurrently with a corticosteroid,
such as beclometasone. The primary noticeable difference of salmeterol to
salbutamol is that the duration of action lasts approximately 12 hours in
comparison with 4пѕђ6 hours of salbutamol.
BRONCHODILATORS,
ADRENERGIC (Inhalation)*
In the U.S.Adrenalin Chloride 3
Airet 1
Alupent 8
Arm-a-Med Isoetharine 6
Arm-a-Med Metaproterenol 8
Asthmahaler Mist 3
AsthmaNefrin 3
Beta-2 6
Brethaire 12
Bronkaid Mist 3
Bronkaid Suspension Mist 3
Bronkometer 6
Bronkosol 6
Dey-Lute Isoetharine 6
Dey-Lute Metaproterenol 8
Foradil 5
Isuprel 7
Isuprel Mistometer 7
Maxair 9
Maxair Autohaler 9
Medihaler-Iso 7
microNefrin 3
Nephron 3
Primatene Mist 3
Proventil 1
Proventil HFA 1
S-2 3
Serevent Diskus 11
Vaponefrin 3
Ventolin 1
Ventolin HFA 1
Ventolin Nebules 1
Ventolin Rotacaps 1tolin Rotacaps 1
In CanadaAlupent 8
Apo-Salvent 1
Berotec 4
Bricanyl Turbuhaler 12
Bronkaid Mistometer 3
Foradil 5
Gen-Salbutamol Sterinebs P.F. 1
Isuprel 7
Isuprel Mistometer 7
Maxair 9
Novo-Salmol 1
Oxeze Turbuhaler 5
Pro-Air 10
Serevent 11
Serevent Diskhaler 11
Serevent Diskus 11
Vaponefrin 3
Ventodisk 1
Ventolin 1
Ventolin Nebules P.F. 1
Ventolin Rotacaps 1tolin Rotacaps 1
This information applies to the following medicines:
1.Albuterol (al-BYOO-ter-ole)‡§
2.Bitolterol (bye-TOLE-ter-ole)*†3.Epinephrine (ep-i-NEF-rin)‡
4.Fenoterol (fen-OH-ter-ole)*
5.Formoterol (for-MOH-ter-ol))‡§
6.Isoetharine (eye-soe-ETH-a-reen)†‡
7.Isoproterenol (eye-soe-proe-TER-e-nole)‡
8.Metaproterenol (met-a-proe-TER-e-nole)‡
9.Pirbuterol (peer-BYOO-ter-ole)
10.Procaterol (proe-KAY-ter-ole)*
11.Salmeterol# (sal-ME-te-role)*
12.Terbutaline (ter-BYOO-ta-leen)
Treatment of COPD
• BronchodilatorsThere are three types of
bronchodilators used clinically: ОІ2-agonists,
anticholinergics and
methylxanthines.[8]These drugs relax the
smooth muscles of the airway allowing for
improved airflow. Many patients feel less
breathless after taking bronchodilators.
CombiventВ®
Salbutamol / Ipratropium bromide
Presentation
Inhaler 100mcg / 20 mcg per inhalation
Combivent metered dose inhaler has an opaque shaft with a grey mouthpiece and cap. The canister contains a creamy-white
homogenous suspension of micronised substances in a chlorofluorohydrocarbon propellant mixture filled in an aluminium canister
with a metering valve. Each metered dose contains salbutamol 100 mcg (equivalent to 120 mcg salbutamol sulphate), and
ipratropium bromide 20 mcg (equivalent to 21 mcg of ipratropium bromide monohydrate).
RespulesВ® 2.5mg / 500mcg in 2.5ml
Combivent 2.5ml Respule contains an isotonic, clear, preservative-free solution for inhalation of 2.5mg
salbutamol (equivalent to 3.01mg salbutamol sulphate) and 500 mcg ipratropium bromide anhydrous (equivalent
to 520 mcg ipratropium bromide monohydrate)
Uses
Actions
Combivent contains two active bronchodilating substances, salbutamol sulphate and ipratropium bromide.
Salbutamol sulphate is a beta2-adrenergic agent which acts on airway smooth muscle resulting in relaxation.
Salbutamol relaxes all smooth muscle from the trachea to the terminal bronchioles and protects against all
bronchoconstrictor challenges.
Ipratropium bromide is a quaternary ammonium compound with anticholinergic properties. In preclinical studies,
it appears to inhibit vagally mediated reflexes by antagonising the action of acetylcholine, the transmitter agent
released from the vagus nerve. Anticholinergics prevent the increase of intracellular concentration of cyclic
guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) caused by interaction of acetylcholine with muscarinic receptors on
bronchial smooth muscle. The bronchodilation following inhalation of ipratropium bromide is primarily local and
site specific to the lung and not systemic in nature.
Combivent provides the simultaneous release of ipratropium bromide and salbutamol allowing the synergistic
efficacy on the muscarinic and beta2-adrenergic receptors in the airways to cause bronchodilation which is
superior to that provided by each single agent and with no potentiation of adverse
Cholinergic Antagonists (Muscarinic receptor)
Br
C H ( C H 3) 2
H 3C
N
H
C H 2 OH
O
CH
C
O
Ipratropium
(bronchodilator & anti-asthmatic)
Adrenergic Receptors in the
CNS
• http://www.brainexplorer.org/video/index
.shtml
пЃЎ-Blockers
• Alpha blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking
agents) constitute a variety of drugs which block О±1adrenergic receptors in arteries and smooth muscles.
• These drugs may be used to treat:・benign prostatic
hyperplasia (BPH)пЅҐhigh blood pressure (hypertension).
This is not typically the drug of choice unless the patient
also has BPH.пЅҐsymptoms of non inflammatory chronic
pelvic pain syndrome, a type of prostatitis. As a side effect
they may reduce blood pressure and result in
lightheadedness.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
• http://www.muschealth.com/gs/Animatio
nList.aspx#anim4
• http://health.howstuffworks.com/adam200003.htm
Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
Medications
Alpha blockers (О±1-adrenergic receptor antagonists) (such as doxazosin, prazosin, alfuzosin
and tamsulosin) and certain antiandrogens such as the 5О±-reductase inhibitors (finasteride
and dutasteride) are used, often together, in suppressing the symptoms. Alpha-blockers
relax smooth muscle in the prostate and bladder neck decreasing the degree of blockage of
urine flow. Alpha-blockers may cause ejaculation back into the bladder (retrograde
ejaculation). This is not harmful.
There is also extensive evidence of the efficacy of Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit
extracts in alleviating mild-to-moderate BPH symptoms. A systematic review of evidence
found comparable efficacy to finasteride. (Wilt et al., 2002) Other herbal medicines that
have solid research support in systematic reviews include beta-sitosterol from Hypoxis
rooperi (African star grass) and Prunus africanum (pygeum) bark, while there is less
substantial support for the efficacy of Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin) seed and Urtica dioica
(stinging nettle) root. (Wilt et al., 2000) At least one double-blind trial has also supported the
efficacy of rye flower pollen. (Buck, et al., 1990)
Sildenafil shows some symptomatic relief, suggesting a possible common etiology with
erectile disfunction. (Brown 2005)o
Examples of commercial пЃЎ-blockers
O
O
O
N
N
N
O
N
N
N
OMe
OMe
O
N
N
P razo sin
(M in ipress, H y p o vase)
OMe
D o x azosin
(C ard u ra, P fizer)
NH2
OMe
NH2
N
O
N
H
N
H 2N S O 2
O
N
H
CH3
OH
H 3C O
Cl
P hen ox y b en zam in e
P hen to lam in e
T am su lo sin
(F lo m ax, A stellas P harm a)
O C 2H 5
пЃў-Blockers
• Beta blockers (sometimes written as β-blockers)
are a class of drugs used for various indications, but
particularly for the management of cardiac
arrhythmias and cardioprotection after myocardial
infarction. Whilst once first-line treatment for
hypertension, their role was downgraded in June
2006 in the United Kingdom to fourth-line as they
perform less well than other drugs, particularly in the
elderly, and there is increasing evidence that the
most frequently used beta-blockers at usual doses
carry an unacceptable risk of provoking type 2
diabetes.[1]
Hypertension
• http://www.healthscout.com/animation/6
8/47/main.html
What are пЃў-blockers used for?
• Numerous studies suggest that beta-blockers can reduce
mortality by 25% to 40% in patients with certain kinds of
heart failure, and cut sudden cardiac death up to 50% in
patients with a recent heart attack.
• Current Uses
• Treatment・Angina pectoris (chest pain associated with
lack of oxygen to the heart)пЅҐArrhythmias (irregular
heart rhythms)пЅҐHeart attackпЅҐHeart failureпЅҐHypertension
(high blood pressure)
• Prevention・Protects the heart in people who have
coronary artery diseaseпЅҐReduces risk of strokeпЅҐ
Protective prior to non-cardiac surgery in persons at
high risk of complications
Heart Failure
• http://www.healthscout.com/animation/6
8/13/main.html
• http://www.medindia.net/animation/heart
_attack.asp
How do пЃў-blockers work?
•
•
•
Mechanism for How It WorksпЅҐBeta-blockers "block" the effects of
adrenaline on your body's beta-receptors. This slows the nerve
impulses that travel through the heart. As a result, your heart does
not have to work as hard because it needs less blood and oxygen.
This decreases heart rate, blood pressure, and lessens the need for
nitrates. Beta-blockers also block the impulses that can cause an
arrhythmia (abnormal heart beat).пЅҐ
Beta-blockers generally work by affecting the response to some nerve
impulses. Your body has 2 main beta-receptors: beta 1 and beta 2.
Some beta-blockers are selective, which means that they block beta 1
receptors more than they block beta 2 receptors. Beta 1 receptors are
responsible for heart rate and the strength of your heartbeat.
Nonselective beta-blockers block both beta 1 and beta 2 receptors.
Beta 2 receptors are responsible for the function of your smooth
muscles (muscles that control body functions but that you do not
have control over).пЅҐ
This class of drugs may decrease the sympathetic outflow from the
central nervous system and/or suppress the release of reninпѕ‘a
substance that is elevated in some patients with high blood pressure
and is involved in a cascade of events leading to constriction of blood
vessels. In addition, some speculate that beta-blockers may have
possible antioxidant and cholesterol lowering effects.
Strategy for design of пЃў-blockers
• Begin design by identifying a molecule
selective for пЃў-receptors
• For example, we discussed the following
molecule, which is a reasonably selective пЃўagonist (e.g. isoprenaline)
OH
HO
H
N
HO
Iso pren aline
Design of пЃў-blockers
• Remove phenolic OH groups, which are
necessary for пЃў-agonism
OH
Cl
H
N
Cl
D ichloroisoprenaline
(now a partial agonist)
пЃў-blocker design
• Replace two chlorine atoms with a
fused aryl ring
• Resulted in a partial agonist, which
partially blocked effect of epinephrine
OH
H
N
P ronethalol
(still a partial agonist)
пЃў-blocker design
• Next extend the side chain to try and achieve “umbrella”
effect
• Serendipity comes into play, as one synthetic
intermediate is not available in the research lab, another
is used, and a drug is discovered.
OH
O
H
N
OH
O
T arg et S tru cture
H
N
P ro pran o lol
пЃў-blocker design
• Propranolol (INN) (IPA: [proˈprセnəloʊl]) is a nonselective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of
hypertension. It was the first successful beta blocker
developed. Propranolol is commonly marketed by
AstraZeneca under the trade name Inderal.
• Scottish scientist James W. Black
successfully developed propranolol in the late
1950s. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in
Medicine for this discovery in 1988.
Examples of beta blockers
Dichloroisoprenaline, the first beta blocker.
Alprenolol
Carteolol
Levobunolol
Mepindolol
Metipranolol
Nadolol
Oxprenolol
Penbutolol
Pindolol
Propranolol
Sotalol
Timolol
[edit]ОІ1-Selective agents
Acebutolol
Atenolol
Betaxolol
Bisoprolol
Esmolol
Metoprolol
Nebivolol
[edit]Mixed О±1/ОІ-adrenergic antagonists
Carvedilol
Celiprolol
Labetalolprolol
LabetalolпїЅпїЅпїЅ
�������������耀耀Ό汣楯�ഫ
Some пЃў-blockers are also
used to treat glaucoma
http://www.goodhope.org.uk/departments/eyedept/images/gl
aucoma.html
http://www.goodhope.org.uk/departments/eyedept/angleclosu
reetc.htm
http://www.goodhope.org.uk/departments/eyedept/dropsfor.h
tm
Non-specific пЃў-blockers
(antagonize both пЃў1 and пЃў2 receptors)
OH
OH
H
N
O
OH
OH
H
N
O
H
N
H
N
O
O
O
N
H
O
C arteo lo l
P ro p rano lo l
OH
OH
OH
H
N
O
M etip rano lo l
(O p tiP rano lo l, G lauco m a)
L ev ob un olo l
O
O
O
H
N
H
N
OH
H
N
HO
M eSO 2
N
H
N
H
HO
N ado lo l
(C o rg ard , b lo od pressu re, ch est p ain )
O x p ren olol
P ind olo l
OH
H
N
O
O
N
N
N
S
T im olol
(oral form is B lo cadren )
(O pth alm ic fo rm T im op to l or T im o p tic)
S o talol
(also in h ib its in w ard p o tassium ch an n els
in the h eart)
Selective (пЃў1 selective)
пЃў-blockers
H
N
O
H
N
O
H
N
O
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
H
N
O
H
N
O
O
O
NH2
HN
O
O
O
O
A cebutolol
A tenolol
B etaxolol
(B etoptic, L okren)
E sm olol
(B revibloc)
M etoprolol
(L opressor, N ovartis)
(also T oprol-X L ,
B etaloc (A straZ eneca)
Why do you want selective
antagonists?
• Acebutolol is a cardioselective beta
blocker. It is more suitable than non
cardioselective beta blockers, if a
patient with Asthma bronchiale or
chronic obstructive lung disease
(COLD) needs treatment with a beta
blocker.
Non-selective пЃў-blockers which also
antagonize at the пЃЎ1 receptor
M eO
OH
O
H
N
OH
O
N
H
C arv ed ilo l
(C oreg , G S K )
(D ilatren d, E u cardic, R o ch e)
H
N
HO
O
NH2
L ab etalo l
(N orm o d yn e, T ran d ate)
Why add пЃЎ1 antagonism?
• In addition to blocking both β1- and β2adrenergic receptors, carvedilol also
displays О±1-adrenergic antagonism,
which confers the added benefit of
reducing blood pressure through
vasodilation.
Biosynthesis of norepinephrine and epinephrine
NH2
C O 2H
HO
HO
T y ro sin e
hyd ro x y lase
NH2
C O 2H
HO
L -T y ro sine
HO
D o pa
D ecarb o xy lase
NH2
HO
D o pam ine
L ev od op a
OH
OH
D o p am in e
пЃў -h yd rox y lase
HO
HO
NH2
N -m eth y l transferase
(in A d ren al m ed ulla)
HO
N orep in ep hrin e
(N oradren aline)
NHMe
HO
E pinep hrine
(A d renalin e)
A competitive inhibitor of tyrosine
hydroxylase can be used to slow
production of catecholamines
NH2
C O 2H
HO
пЃЎ -M ethyltyrosine
Inhibition of catecholamine
synthesis
п‚• пЃЎ-methyltyrosine is occasionally used to
treat hypertension associated with
tumors in the adrenal medulla
Reserpine
• Reserpine was isolated in 1952 from the dried root of
Rauwolfia serpentina (Indian snakeroot),[4] and introduced
in 1954, two years after chlorpromazine.[5] Reserpine
almost irreversibly blocks the uptake (and storage) of
noradrenaline and dopamine into synaptic vesicles by
inhibiting the Vesicular Monoamine Transporters
(VMAT).[6] In so doing, it leaves the noradrenaline in the
cytoplasm, where it is destroyed by monamine oxidase
(MAO). It was once used to treat hypertension, but has
many side effects, including depression, stomach cramps,
diarrhea, etc.
OCH
3
H
N
O
OCH3
O
C H 3O
N
H
OCH3
H
H
C H 3O 2C
OCH3
Norepinephrine Reuptake
Inhibitors as Antidepressants
• Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs), also known as
noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NARIs), are compounds that elevate
the extracellular level of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine in the central
nervous system by inhibiting its reuptake from the synaptic cleft into the
presynaptic neuronal terminal. The drugs inhibit the class of
neurotransmitter transporters known as norepinephrine transporters. They
have virtually no action at other monoamine transporters.
Depression
• http://www.healthcentral.com/depressio
n/introduction-5003-109.html
• http://www.healthcentral.com/depressio
n/introduction-5003-109.html
• http://www.healthscout.com/animation/6
8/10/main.html
What is serotonin?
NH2
HO
5 -H yd ro xytryp ta m in e , o r 5 -H T
N
H
In the central nervous system, serotonin is believed to play an important role in the regulation
of body temperature, mood, sleep, vomiting, sexuality, and appetite. Low levels of serotonin
have been associated with several disorders, namely clinical depression, obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD), migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, tinnitus, fibromyalgia, bipolar
disorder, and anxiety disorders.[citation needed] If neurons of the brainstem that make
serotonin—serotonergic neurons—are abnormal, there is a risk of sudden infant death
syndrome (SIDS) in an infant.[1]
Understanding Serotonin
• The pharmacology of 5-HT is extremely complex,
with its actions being mediated by a large and diverse
range of 5-HT receptors. At least seven different
receptor "families" are known to exist, each located in
different parts of the body and triggering different
responses. As with all neurotransmitters, the effects
of 5-HT on the human mood and state of mind, and
its role in consciousness, are very difficult to
ascertain.
Understanding Serotonin
• Serotonergic action is terminated primarily via uptake
of 5-HT from the synapse. This is through the specific
monoamine transporter for 5-HT, 5-HT reuptake
transporter, on the presynaptic neuron. Various
agents can inhibit 5-HT reuptake including MDMA
(ecstasy), cocaine, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
(SSRIs).Recent research suggests that serotonin
plays an important role in liver regeneration and acts
as a mitogen (induces cell division) throughout the
body.[6]
Norepinephrin Reuptake Inhibitors for Depression
H 3C
OH
O
HO
CH3
NHCH3
N
H
HO
A to m o xetine
(S trattera, E li L illy & C o .)
E pinep h rin e
• Atomoxetine is classified as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and is
approved for use in children, adolescents, and adults.
• Atomoxetine is the first non-stimulant drug approved for the treatment of
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is sold in the form of the
hydrochloride salt of atomoxetine. It is manufactured and marketed under
the brand name StratteraпЅЁ by Eli Lilly and Company as a generic Attentin
by Torrent Pharmaceuticals. There is currently no generic available within
the United States due to patent restrictions.
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