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History and Uses of Music Education for Children Who Are Hearing

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History and Uses of
Music Education for
Children Who Are
Hearing Impaired
Theresa L. Kestner
Central Institute for the
Deaf
2001
Advisor: Pam Zacher
Introduction
Music is “many-sided in its effect on
the human body. It is a medium of
outward activity and inward
experience; it relates directly to
speech and language, to
communication and thought, to
bodily expression and dance, to a
range of emotions, and to the
perception and recognition of sound
patterns and forms” (Robbins &
Robbins, 1980).
History
п‚Ї1837, Lowell Mason
п‚Ї1848, William Wolcott Turner &
David Ely Bartlett
п‚Ї1877, NY School for the Deaf
п‚Ї1802, Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard
п‚Ї1923-1942, IL School for the
Deaf
п‚Ї1988, Gaulladet University
Speech Skills (Rhythm)
п‚ЇResearch studies have focused on
rhythm activities and perception
п‚ЇGives them an idea of rhythm,
accent, and fluency; also helps
coordination, poise and balance
п‚ЇListening helps to stimulate and
strengthen ability to utilize residual
hearing; lays foundation for rhythm
of language
Teaching Rhythm
п‚ЇNursery rhymes or dancing
п‚ЇPercussion instruments based
on the Orff Method
п‚ЇUse entire bodies in many
rhythmic experiences
Speech Skills
(Singing & Pitch)
п‚ЇUsed primarily for group
recreation purposes
п‚ЇMeans for self-expression or as
a means of improving speech &
language development
п‚ЇProvides personal satisfaction
and a source of shared social
pleasure
Improving Vocal
Accuracy
п‚ЇEarly vocal training
п‚ЇAppropriate models and
feedback
п‚ЇStructured practice
п‚ЇAdditional time with daily vocal
exercises and vocal ensembles
п‚ЇInstrumental accompaniment
п‚ЇKodГЎly hand signals
Speech Skills (Breath)
п‚ЇAbility to copy breathing
patterns easily when singing in
a group under no pressure
Auditory Skills
п‚ЇAuditory training: to teach the
complex task of listening
п‚ЇCan become rigid and highly
structured, therefore, music is highly
motivating
п‚ЇMelodic aspects of language contain
a great deal of information
п‚ЇNatural motivation to use residual
hearing
Social Skills
п‚ЇGroup music making promotes
“sharing, mutual attentiveness,
responsibility to the group, and
an enjoyable sense of
partnership in activities that
demand a cooperative effort for
successful accomplishment”
(Robbins & Robbins, 1980).
Participants/Procedures
п‚Ї30 oral and state schools for the
hearing impaired around the U.S.
п‚ЇGiven approximately 3 weeks,
after 2 weeks phone calls were
made
п‚Ї24 were completed (80% return
rate) - 12 oral & 12 state
Categories
п‚ЇMusic programs offered
п‚ЇNature of instructor
п‚ЇLength of program
п‚ЇAge of students
п‚ЇMethodologies used
п‚ЇNoted improvements
п‚ЇOther programs offered
п‚ЇAdditional comments
1. Do you provide a music
program for your students?
• 67% oral schools
• 42% state schools
2. What is offered under
your music program?
• 69% dance or movement
instruction
• 54% instrumental instruction
• 54% vocal instruction
• 31% music theory classes
• 38% other
3. Who provides the
instruction for the music
program?
• 54% teachers of the hearing
impaired
• 23% regular education teachers
• Music therapist
• Dance instructor
• Volunteer
4. How long have you
offered your music
program?
• 4 months to 165 years
• Typical length: 2 to 20 years
5. What age of students
participate in the music
program?
• 2 to 21 years
6. Do hearing children
participate in the music
program?
• 63% oral schools
• 20% state schools
7. What are the primary
objectives of the music
program?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
77% curriculum enrichment
69% musical skills
69% speech & auditory skills
62% music appreciation
54% music performance
8% music composition
23% other
8. Which teaching materials
&/or methodologies have been
most helpful?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dalcroze eurhythmics
Orff Method
General education music curricula
Folk dance materials
Nursery rhymes
C.D.’s of various music types
SMILE program
Raffi’s music
Keyboard lessons
Various instruments
9. Have you noticed a change
in your students since
starting your music program?
•
•
•
•
•
64%
64%
55%
27%
23%
auditory skills
social/emotional skills
speech skills
academic performance
other
10. What other programs
do you offer?
•
•
•
•
57%
53%
50%
20%
art
physical education
computers
other
11. Other comments
п‚— Hearing impaired children should have
opportunities to enjoy and appreciate
music just as their hearing age mates
do.
п‚— I find our deaf children (like most
people) respond to music through
hearing, yes, but mostly they respond to
something that happens inside, in their
hearts and feelings.
п‚— Music is an integral part of our
curriculum and is used in daily
classroom instruction as an important
vehicle for language development.
Conclusions
п‚ЇMost effective way: have more
successful music programs
п‚ЇParents: enthusiastically
support music
п‚ЇEducators: mixed attitudes
п‚ЇProfessionals: already made
changes, now need to include
children who are hearing
impaired
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