RECENT POLITICAL TRENDS IN LATIN AMERICA OUTLINE вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Political and economic considerations Regional integration External role players Conclusion POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS вЂў Rise in election victories of leftleaning/progressive governments вЂў Factors linked to the rise of left-leaning governments вЂў Categories of left-leaning governments Political and economic considerations contвЂ¦ вЂў Examples: вЂ“ Presidents such as вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Hugo Chavez (Venezuela) InГЎcio Lula da Silva (Brazil) Evo Morales (Bolivia) Michelle Bachelet (Chile) TabarГ© VГ zquez (Uruguay) Political and economic considerations contвЂ¦ вЂў Factors linked to the rise of left-leaning governments: пѓ� Oppressive and corrupt governments пѓ� Failure of military and subsequent governments to deliver on socio-economic policies пѓ� Continuing Poverty Political and economic considerations contвЂ¦ пѓ� Inequality and social exclusion of the majority and indigenous people пѓ� Wave of state democratisation пѓ� Dissatisfaction with implementation of neo-liberal economic policies пѓ� Resentment of the US domination of the region пѓ� The need to reinforce autonomy from external influences Political and economic considerations contвЂ¦ вЂў Categories of left-leaning governments пѓ� First Category: Leaders and movements that originated from communist and socialist ideology. пѓ� Emphasis on social policies that include education, antipoverty programmes, health and housing, amongst other things. пѓ� Represented by Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Panama and Peru. Political and economic considerations contвЂ¦ Second Category: considered nationalistic and populist in orientation. пѓ� Prioritises the importance of national sovereignty and governmentвЂ™s involvement in controlling state resources пѓ� Represented by Bolivia and Venezuela Regional integration вЂў Brazil is one of the leading countries in the region together with Argentina, Venezuela and Mexico. вЂў Countries have actively engaged in efforts to reduce economic and trade dependence from the US and the EU. There are different approaches in integration efforts. вЂў Challenges in integration efforts lie mostly on how to move the integration process forward. вЂў Challenges are attributed to contending country interests, principally between Brazil and Argentina. Regional integration вЂў Integration is a very complex puzzle. In addition to Mercosur, CAN and SACN, there is the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (ALBA). вЂў ALBA initiated and supported by President ChГ vez . вЂў Notwithstanding differences, there is possibility for convergence between Mercosur, CAN, SACN and ALBA. External Role Players CHINA пѓ� Pursuing robust policy towards Latin America. пѓ� Interested in gaining access to mineral resources through trade and investment. INDIA пѓ� Considered as a new emerging market with new opportunities. пѓ� Relations not yet at the desired level but growing . пѓ� Possibility to escalate economic relations into political alliances at multilateral forums. External role players contвЂ¦ AFRICA пѓ� Growing presence of the African countries in the region and vice versa. пѓ� Brazil and Colombia have the largest number of African Diaspora. пѓ� Developing cooperation between the two regions. Conclusion вЂў The emergence of progressive governments in Latin America signals the possibility of a shift in the global configuration of power, in favour of the South. вЂў This then has a potential to boost the advancement of certain common issues of the South at the multilateral fora.