Chapter Introduction Section 1: Australia and New Zealand Section 2: Oceania Section 3: Antarctica Summary Bill Bachman/Wild Light Human-Environment Interaction The lands of Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica range from tiny islands to massive continents. Some places in this region have environments too harsh for people to live there permanently. Others have attractive climates but few resources. How might people survive in a land with limited resources? Section 1: Australia and New Zealand PeopleвЂ™s actions can change the physical environment. Extensive farming and ranching, along with other agricultural and economic practices, have affected Australia and New Zealand. Section 2: Oceania Patterns of economic activities result in global interdependence. Many of OceaniaвЂ™s islands have limited resources and depend on tourism or aid from other countries to support their economies. Section 3: Antarctica All living things are dependent upon one another and their surroundings for survival. Scientists fear that human activity may be harming plant and animal life in Antarctica. PeopleвЂ™s actions can change the physical environment. Content Vocabulary вЂў lawsuit вЂў kiwifruit вЂў merino Academic Vocabulary вЂў consist вЂў acknowledge Do you think the Aborigines have a right to claim land that вЂњbelongs to their peopleвЂќ? A. Yes A 0% 0% C C. Maybe A. A B. B C.0%C B B. No To keep AustraliaвЂ™s people, environment, and livestock free of disease and pests, the government has enacted strict quarantine laws. Quarantine means holding anyone or anything until health or cleanliness can be proven. Australia inspects incoming people, baggage, and cargo at its airports, seaports, international mail centers, and shipping centers. More than 10,000 ships are inspected every year, as are a million and a half pieces of mail. Australia Australia has a strong economy, but economic growth has created serious challenges for its environment. Australia (cont.) вЂў Australia has a huge land area but only 20.6 million people. вЂў Needing skilled workers to develop resources and build its economy, the government has encouraged immigration. Australia (cont.) вЂў Most Australians are descended from the first immigrants who were from the British Isles and Europe. вЂў Today, immigrants come from Asia, South Africa, Latin America, and Oceania. Australia (cont.) вЂў The Aborigines were the first people to settle Australia, but they have suffered discrimination from white Australians for years. вЂў Recently the government has worked toward improvements in education, job pay, poverty solutions, and health care, but the problems still exist. Australia (cont.) вЂў In the late 1980s, a group of Aborigines filed a lawsuit to block mining on land they said belonged to their people, and in 1992 a court agreed. вЂў Later court decisions gave Aborigines control over land that was being used for sheep ranches and other economic activities. Australia (cont.) вЂў Other Australians are now worried that they might lose land to such Aborigine claims, and the government is trying to find a balance. Australia (cont.) вЂў AustraliaвЂ™s prosperous economy is partly based on the export of mineral and energy resources such as iron ore, nickel, zinc, bauxite, gold, diamonds, coal, oil, and natural gas to China and Japan. Australia and Oceania: GDP per Person for Selected Countries Australia (cont.) вЂў AustraliaвЂ™s dry climate and poor soils limit farming, but irrigation allows farmers to grow grains, sugarcane, cotton, fruits, and vegetables. вЂў Australia is a world leader in the export of wool, lamb, beef, and cattle hides. вЂў Many of the sheep raised in the country are merinos, a breed of sheep known for its fine wool. Australia (cont.) вЂў Australian factories produce processed foods, transportation equipment, cloth, and chemicals. вЂў High-technology industries, service industries, and tourism are also important to the economy. Australia (cont.) вЂў Since the 1980s, Australians have been working to preserve their land, but some people fear these efforts are too extreme and will hurt the economy. The main agricultural activity in Australia is A. the raising of livestock B. the growing of sugarcane C. the growing of cotton D. the mining of iron ore A. A B. B 0% C.0%C D. D A B 0% C 0% D New Zealand New Zealand is a small country with a growing economy that is based on trade. New Zealand (cont.) вЂў The population of New Zealand consists largely of the descendants of European, especially British and Irish, immigrants. вЂў There are also people of German, Scandinavian, Croatian, and Dutch backgrounds. New Zealand (cont.) вЂў The Maori, the first people to settle New Zealand, are the largest non-European group, forming about 15 percent of the population. вЂў In 1840 Maori leaders signed the Treaty of Waitangi with Great Britain, which acknowledged British rule over the islands and included the promise of the British to protect Maori land rights. New Zealand (cont.) вЂў Some Maori have charged that since 1840, Europeans unfairly took land from them. вЂў They use the Treaty of Waitangi to win lawsuits recognizing their right to land. вЂў Some people of European descent fear these lawsuits will cause them to lose their land and livelihood. New Zealand (cont.) вЂў The population growth rate among Pacific Islanders, East Asians, Southeast Asians, and the Maori in New Zealand is high, but the growth rate among whites is low, indicating a future change in the ethnic balance of the country. New Zealand (cont.) вЂў New ZealandвЂ™s export of wool and meat has long been a major factor in the countryвЂ™s economy. вЂў The countryвЂ™s cattle industry produces butter, cheese, and meat for export. New Zealand (cont.) вЂў Expanding businesses in New Zealand include the production of wood and paper products, and farming and winemaking. вЂў Apples, grapes, kiwifruit, barley, wheat, and corn are the major crops. вЂў Service industries and tourism also play large roles in the economy. New Zealand (cont.) вЂў New ZealandвЂ™s trade with other countries is an important part of its economy. вЂў Australia is still an important trading partner, but the United Kingdom has become a lesser partner as trade with the United States and countries in East Asia has increased. Why is trade with other countries such a major part of New ZealandвЂ™s economy? A. Because the rate of population growth is increasing 0% D 0% C B A B. Because it is a relatively small A. A country B. B C. Because the countryвЂ™s C.0% C0% resources are dwindling D. D D. All of the above Patterns of economic activities result in global interdependence. Content Vocabulary вЂў copra вЂў faвЂ™a Samoa вЂў lingua franca вЂў habitat Academic Vocabulary вЂў extract вЂў establish Why do you think American influence remains strong in Micronesia? A. American tourists are plentiful. B. American music is extremely popular. 0% D 0% C B A A. A B. B C. U.S. military bases are 0% 0% C. C in the area. D. D D. Americans provide government aid. In the island country of Palau there is a small lake that is home to between 10 and 20 million jellyfish. They range from marble-sized to larger than a softball. This habitat has been invaded by the non-native sea anemone. Scientists working to control the anemone believe the first one was carried in by a tourist and that if the anemone population grows, the jellyfish population will be endangered. Melanesia Although small in population, Melanesia includes diverse groups of people. Melanesia (cont.) вЂў Papua New Guinea occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and several hundred smaller islands. вЂў Nearly all of its people belong to different Papuan or Melanesian ethnic groups, which are closely related, and they speak more than 700 languages. Melanesia (cont.) вЂў Many people in Papua New Guinea live by subsistence farming. вЂў Others work on plantations that grow coffee, oil palm trees, cacao trees, and coconut palms. вЂў Coconut oil from copra, the meat from dried coconuts, is used to make margarine, soap, and other products. Melanesia (cont.) вЂў Copra and other plantation products are produced for export, so food must be imported for city dwellers. вЂў Papua New Guinea also supports its economy by extracting oil, gold, copper, silver, iron, and zinc from deposits in the land and ocean floors. Melanesia (cont.) вЂў On the other islands of Melanesia, most of the people belong to different Melanesian ethnic groups. вЂў In the Fiji Islands, the population is about evenly divided between Melanesians and South Asians. Melanesia (cont.) вЂў The struggle between Melanesians and South Asians for control of FijiвЂ™s government has made foreign companies afraid to invest there and has kept tourists away. Both have hurt FijiвЂ™s economy. Melanesia (cont.) вЂў Most people in the Solomon Islands are ethnic Melanesians who live by subsistence farming and fishing. Most follow traditional ways. Melanesia (cont.) вЂў Most people in Vanuatu are farmers, although tourism is increasing. вЂў More than 100 Melanesian languages are spoken in Vanuatu, but many people use Bislama as the lingua franca, or a common language used for communication and trade. Melanesia (cont.) вЂў New Caledonia is a French-owned island territory. вЂў Rich nickel deposits provide the countryвЂ™s chief export. вЂў About one-third of the people are of French descent, and they control the economy. вЂў Some of New CaledoniaвЂ™s Melanesians want independence from France. Which island in the region is owned by France? A. Vanuatu B. Papua New Guinea C. Fiji D. New Caledonia 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Micronesia and Polynesia Many people in Micronesia and Polynesia practice subsistence farming. Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.) вЂў Micronesia and Polynesia are made up of high volcanic islands and low, ring-shaped atolls. вЂў Since the 1970s, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, Palau, Nauru, and Kiribati have become independent. Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.) вЂў People on the volcanic and fertile high islands practice subsistence farming, growing yams, sweet potatoes, and cassava. вЂў People on the low islands fish and grow breadfruit, taro, and bananas. вЂў Poor soil limits farm production, so most food is imported. Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.) вЂў The Federal States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands have phosphate, a mineral salt used to make fertilizer, but they lack the money to mine the resource. вЂў KiribatiвЂ™s phosphate deposits are gone, and NauruвЂ™s are almost gone. вЂў Kiribati is dependent on foreign aid, but Nauru is investing abroad and trying to develop service industries. Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.) вЂў Polynesia is a vast island area that lies southeast of Micronesia. вЂў Today, after a period of European rule, some Polynesian islands, such as Samoa and Tonga, are independent. вЂў Others, such as French Polynesia, are still controlled by European countries. Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.) вЂў Many people in Polynesia practice subsistence farming. вЂў Several island economies depend on foreign aid. вЂў Samoa and Tonga have built strong tourist industries, and both also earn money by exporting timber. Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.) вЂў Samoa has tried to prevent deforestation by establishing a program to replant trees as they are cut down. вЂў Tonga grows vanilla beans and coconuts as cash crops. вЂў Other import industries in Polynesia include canning tuna and issuing colorful postage stamps for collectors. Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.) вЂў Samoans call their way of life the faвЂ™a Samoa, which emphasizes living in harmony with the community and the land. вЂў The people of Samoa are known for their music, dance, handicrafts, and tattoos. Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.) вЂў In the late 1940s, the United States and other countries tested nuclear weapons in the Pacific area, exposing residents of nearby islands to radiation that caused deaths and illnesses and poisoned the land, water, and vegetation. вЂў The United States has provided millions of dollars to help Marshall Islanders affected by the atomic tests. Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.) вЂў United States aid has been used to clean up the environment in testing areas. вЂў Still, by the late 1900s, islanders could not return to Bikini Atoll, where the United States began nuclear testing in 1946. вЂў France planned nuclear tests on an atoll in French Polynesia but cancelled those tests as a result of international protests. Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.) вЂў Phosphate mining also has caused environmental damage. вЂў About 80 percent of Nauru cannot support human life, and native birds are threatened by the loss of their habitats. вЂў Nauru is now seeking international aid to restore its land. What is the largest cause of environmental damage in this region? A. Deforestation B. Nuclear testing C. Phosphate mining D. Volcanic activity 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D All living things are dependent upon one another and their surroundings for survival. Content Vocabulary вЂў extinction вЂў krill вЂў ozone Academic Vocabulary вЂў research вЂў specify Do you think Antarctica should be preserved for scientific research as stated in the Antarctic Treaty of 1959? A. Strongly agree A 0% 0% C C. Disagree A. A B. B C.0%C B B. Somewhat agree Each year in December, runners from around the world meet for the 26.2 mile (42.2 km) Antarctic Ice Marathon. Temperatures vary, but the average is from 14В°F to вЂ“ 4В°F (вЂ“10В° to вЂ“20В°C), and officials caution that the distance plus the cold equal a difficult runвЂ”but people keep coming. They love the challenge and the beauty of Antarctica! International Cooperation Antarctica is a center of scientific research. International Cooperation (cont.) вЂў After Antarctica was first sighted in the 1820s, scientists and seal hunters visited parts of the coasts, but the interior remained unexplored until the early 1900s. вЂў Explorers reached the South Pole in 1911. International Cooperation (cont.) вЂў Hoping to find mineral resources, several countries claimed territory in Antarctica, but many other countries, including the United States, opposed the claims. вЂў During the 1950s, several countries began to cooperate on scientific research in Antarctica. International Cooperation (cont.) вЂў Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959. вЂў This agreement stated that Antarctica should be used only for peaceful, scientific purposes. вЂў It specified that Antarctica could not be used for weapons testing or any other military use. International Cooperation (cont.) вЂў Since 1959, forty-five countries have signed the Antarctic Treaty. вЂў These countries have agreed to forbid mining in Antarctica and to protect its environment. International Cooperation (cont.) вЂў Geologists have found the remains of trees from millions of years ago. вЂў They believe these findings show that Antarctica was once joined to Africa and South America. вЂў Climatologists study samples of ice from deep beneath the surface of the ice layer, hoping to learn about the climate from thousands of years ago. What proof have scientists found that Antarctica might have been joined to Africa and South America? A. Ice samples that reveal climate changes in the region 0% D 0% C D. None of the above A B C0% D B C. Both A and B A. B. C. 0% D. A B. The remains of trees AntarcticaвЂ™s Environment Climate changes are affecting AntarcticaвЂ™s environment. AntarcticaвЂ™s Environment (cont.) вЂў Penguins, seals, fish, whales, and many kinds of flying birds live in or near the seas surrounding Antarctica. вЂў Larger animals, such as whales and seals, were once hunted nearly to extinction, or disappearance from the Earth. AntarcticaвЂ™s Environment (cont.) вЂў Higher temperatures from global warming could lead to the loss of ice in and near Antarctica, resulting in the loss of plants that live on that ice. вЂў These plants form the diet of krill, which is the main food source for many larger species of animals. вЂў Less plant life means less krill, and less krill threatens the survival of other animals. AntarcticaвЂ™s Environment (cont.) вЂў Scientists warn that an Antarctic ice melt could raise sea levels around the world, probably flooding low islands in Oceania and highly populated coastal cities. AntarcticaвЂ™s Environment (cont.) вЂў A gas called ozone forms a layer around the Earth in the atmosphere and protects the Earth from certain harmful rays of the sun. вЂў In the 1980s, scientists noticed a вЂњholeвЂќ in the ozone layer above Antarctica, caused, they believe, by human-made chemicals reacting with the sunвЂ™s rays. The Ozone Hole What do scientists believe caused the вЂњholeвЂќ in the ozone layer? A. Global warming B. Off-shore drilling C. The extinction of species D. Human-made chemicals reacting with the sunвЂ™s rays A. A B. B C 0%C. 0% D. D A B 0% C 0% D Australia вЂў AustraliaвЂ™s largely European population is becoming more diverse. вЂў The Aborigines still face problems in Australian society. вЂў Australia has rich minerals and productive farms and ranches. New Zealand вЂў New ZealandвЂ™s population is mostly of European background. вЂў The Maori have laid claims to lands in New Zealand. вЂў New ZealandвЂ™s agricultural economy depends on trade. Melanesia вЂў Papua New Guinea is OceaniaвЂ™s largest and most populous country. вЂў Most people in Melanesia practice subsistence farming. вЂў People in many areas of Melanesia follow traditional lifestyles. Micronesia and Polynesia вЂў Many islands in Micronesia have close ties to the United States. вЂў Low-lying islands in Micronesia have to import food. вЂў Polynesian countries have built strong tourist industries. Antarctica вЂў Many nations have agreed to set aside Antarctica for peaceful purposes. вЂў Antarctica is a major center of scientific research. вЂў Small animals and plants live in Antarctica. Larger animals thrive in nearby coastal waters. вЂў A number of problems threaten AntarcticaвЂ™s fragile environment. lawsuit legal action in which people ask for relief from some damage done to them by someone else merino breed of sheep known for especially fine wool kiwifruit small, fuzzy, brownish-colored fruit with bright green flesh consist made up of acknowledge recognize copra dried coconut meat lingua franca common language used for communication and trade faвЂ™a Samoa Samoan way of life, which puts a heavy emphasis on living in harmony with the community and the land habitat type of environment in which a particular animal species lives extract remove establish set up extinction complete disappearance from the Earth of a particular kind of plant or animal krill tiny shrimplike sea creatures that provide food to whales and many other sea animals ozone gas that forms a layer around the Earth in the atmosphere; it blocks out many of the most harmful rays from the sun research work done by scientists or scholars specify make clear To use this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. 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