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Agricultural Production in Australia

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Agricultural Production in
Australia
Tom Loynachan
January 30, 2008
Agriculture in Australia
Overview of production
•
•
•
•
Climate
Soils
Crops
Livestock
Agriculture in Australia
• Agriculture industries in Australia
comprise wide variety of crops,
horticulture, viticulture, dairy, fiber,
fisheries and livestock
Agriculture in Australia
• Country is slightly smaller than the US
contiguous 48 states
• 3% of Australia’s Gross Domestic Product
comes from agriculture
• 80% of all agricultural production is
exported
• Australia remains the world's leading
producer of wool, regularly supplying
nearly one-third of the global total
Top Products by Values (2006-07)
Millions of Australian $
Cattle and calves
Wheat
Milk
Fruit and nuts
Vegetables
Wool
Barley
Poultry
Lambs
Sugar cane
6,517
6,026
3,245
2,915
2,715
2,138
1,624
1,461
1,348
1,208
Melbourne:
370 47’ S
Springfield, MO:
370 13’ N
32 in. =
800 mm
Irrigation in Australia is a widespread and
required in many areas for production of
crops for domestic and export use.
The gross value of irrigated agricultural
production represents around a quarter
(23%) of the gross value of agricultural
commodities produced in Australia in 200405, on less than 1% of agricultural land.
Common crops produced using irrigation
include rice, cotton, canola, sugar, various
fruits and other tree crops and pasture, hay
and grain for use in beef and dairy
production.
Australian Rice Crop at Record Low
• December 04, 2007
• AUSTRALIA'S rice crop is predicted to
be the smallest on record due to the
long-running drought, while cotton
production is set to hit a 30-year low,
the chief commodity forecaster said
Tuesday.
Australia Looks to GM Crops after
Scorching 2007
by Staff Writers
Sydney (AFP) Jan 3, 2008
• Australia's agriculture minister on
Thursday hailed genetically modified crops
as a means to help farmers combat
climate change, as data showed 2007 was
the country's sixth hottest year on record.
Soils
• One of the greatest natural resources. I
include soils developed on a wide range of
rock types and under climatic conditions
varying from the alpine zones of southeastern Australia and Tasmania, through
the Mediterranean zones of southern and
south-western Australia and the wet and
dry tropics of Queensland, to the very low
rainfall areas of the center.
Soil pH of Victoria
New
South
Wales
Crop
(kilotons)
Western
Australia
Victoria Queensland
South
Australia
Tasmania Total
Wheat
6714
2173
1301
6959
3382
23
20552
Barley
1070
1173
202
1511
2000
25
5981
Sorghum
739
3
1140
3
0
0
1885
Cottonseed
663
0
1140
3
0
0
1806
Canola
637
312
1
530
225
1
1706
Oats
360
420
7
588
137
8
1520
Lupins
140
30
0
1050
103
0
1323
Field peas
20
166
0
47
190
1
424
Maize
190
8
171
6
0
0
375
Chickpeas
86
20
56
29
5
0
196
Lentils
2
68
0
2
56
0
128
Broad beans 42
68
1
0
14
0
125
Sunflower
seed
0
65
0
0
0
111
46
Wheat
• Australian wheat is a major competitor of US
wheat exports
• Production concentrated in a narrow crescent
know as the wheat belt, which receives
approximately 400 to 600 mm average annual
rainfall
• Grown as a �winter’ crop (autumn-winter-spring),
often in rotation with some form of pasture
• Virtually all rainfed
• Wheat crop normally averaged 25 m
tonnes (2nd to USA)
• 2007 9.8 m tonnes
1 metric tonne:
= 1000 kg
= a megagram (Mg)
= 2205 lbs
Barley
• Produced same areas as wheat
• 60% feed barley, 40% malting barley
• >80% of malting barley exported (30% of
world trade)
Barley has 3 major end uses:
Feed grain - it is a preferred grain for many feedlots and
stockfeed manufacturers.
Malt barley - for the production of beer and other foodstuffs.
Forage - for grazing, hay or silage.
Australia cultivates an abundance of nuts,
vegetables, and many tropical fruits, including:
– Bananas
– Apples
– Potatoes
– Carrots
– Pineapple
– Orange
– Mango
– Chestnuts
– Tomatoes
Livestock slaughterings Thousands ('000)
Beef
8 587
Cattle exported live
797
Sheep
14 441
Lambs
17 400
Sheep exported live
6 443
Pigs
5 402
Poultry
416 000
Beef Industry
• Biggest agricultural enterprise
• >60% exported mainly to:
– United States
– Japan
• Benefitted recently because does not have
mad cow disease
Breeds
• http://www.yf-agrivet.com.hk/english_site/livestk_prod.htm
Tropical breeds in north; temperate
breeds in south
In north, large cattle stations,
grazing on native
pastures at low stocking
In south, more intensive grazing
on smaller farms with
introduced pastures and fodder crops
Pasture fed dominates but feedlots rapidly developing
Dairy
• Dairy products are Australia's fourth most
valuable agricultural export
• Not heavy regulation today…which has
changed over the last 30 years
• Asia and Middle East are prime markets
Pork
• Produce about 5 million pigs annually
• 0.4% of world production
• Important for local employment and
consumption
Fisheries
• About 1/3 of value from aquaculture
(farming of aquatic organisms), which has
been steadily rising
• Main seafood exports include rock
lobsters, prawns, tuna, and shellfish
Questions
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