The Anglo-Saxons 449-1066 English 12 Honors Mr. Raber Geography #1: GREAT BRITIAN, or simply Britain, is an island comprising 1. England 2. Scotland 3. Wales. Geography #2: The modern nation known as the UNITED KINGDOM (The entire light brown region) includes: 1. Great Britain 2. Northern Ireland, 3. Several smaller islands. Geography #3: Collectively, this group of large and small islands is also known as the BRITISH ISLES. Invaders/Settlers: The island of Great Britain has been invaded and settled by numerous groups of people: Iberians Celts Romans Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (Anglo-Saxons) Danes/Vikings Normans The Iberians пѓј The earliest settlers in Britain were called IBERIANS because it is thought they originally came from the Iberian Peninsula. *this is the peninsula of present-day Portugal and Spain The Celts (K) пѓј Among the Celts was a group called the BRYTHONSвЂ¦sometimes called Britons. Brython flag пѓјTheir name was later adopted for the land name as BRITAIN. The Celts пѓјThe religion of the Celts was a form of ANIMISM ANIMISM = the Latin word for вЂњSpiritвЂќ ANIMISM = belief in the existence of spirits separable from bodies The Celts пѓјThe Celts saw SPIRITS everywhere, and these spirits, or gods, controlled all aspects of existence. The Celts пѓјThe Celts believed these spirits/gods had to be constantly satisfiedвЂ¦ sometimes this even made human sacrifice necessary :( The Celts пѓјPriests, called DRUIDS, acted as intermediaries between the gods and the people. Some think Stonehenge was used by the Druids for certain religious functions Celtic Myths пѓј The Celtic myths influenced many British and Irish writers such as Sir Thomas Malory and William Butler Yeats. пѓјThese myths were unlike later Anglo-Saxon stories in various ways. - For example, unlike the male-dominated Anglo-Saxon stories, the Celtic legends are full of strong women. The Romans пѓјBeginning in 55 B.C., under the leadership of Julius Caesar, the Romans began to invade. Julius Caesar The Romans пѓјNearly 100 years later, under Emperor Claudius, the Celts were finally conquered. Emperor Claudius The Romans пѓјThe Romans provided the armies and organization that prevented further serious invasions of Britain for several hundred years. The Romans were strong and SMART! ThusвЂ¦ пѓјMr. Raber must be a Roman QuickTimeв„ў and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. The Romans пѓјThey built a network of roads (some still used today) ** They also built a defensive wall 73 miles long The Romans пѓј During Roman rule, CHRISTIANITY took hold under the leadership of European missionaries. пѓј Christianity later became a UNIFYING force among the people. пѓј The old Celtic religion began to vanish. The Roman Downfall пѓјDespite the strong leadership and government of the Romans, due to вЂ�troubles at home,вЂ™ they evacuated all of their troupes out of Britain by A.D. 409. Romans The Separated Britain пѓјWithout Roman control, Britain was a country full of separate clans. Unity was gone The Weak Britain пѓјThe resulting weakness made the island prime for a series of SUCCESSFUL INVASIONS by non-Christian peoples from the Germanic regions of continental Europe. WEAK THE INVADERS пѓјThe ANGLES and SAXONS from Germany and JUTES from Denmark invaded across the North Sea. пѓјThey drove out the old Britons and settled the greater part of Britain. CHANGE пѓјThe LANGUAGE of the Anglo-Saxons became the dominant language пѓјThe Angles also changed the name of the land from Britain toвЂ¦. пѓјEngla landвЂ¦ and eventually ENGLAND Anglo-Saxon England пѓјWas not any more unified than Celtic Britain had been until King Alfred of Wessex, ALFRED THE GREAT, led the Anglo-Saxons against the invading DANES, one of the Viking invaders from the cold North. Viking Invaders Alfred the Great The Danes пѓјEventually, the Danes, plundering and destroying anything in their pathвЂ¦ пѓјTook over and settled in parts of northeast and central England Christianity = Unity пѓј It is possible even King Alfred would not have been able to unify the AngloSaxons without the REEMERGENCE OF CHRISTIANITY Christianity пѓј 1) Christianity provided: a COMMON FAITH 2) COMMON SYSTEM OF MORALITY and PROPER CONDUCT. Christianity вЂў Christianity also LINKED England to Europe. вЂў вЂњUnder Christianity and Alfred, the Anglo-Saxons fought to protect their people, their culture, and their church from the ravages of the Danes.вЂќ LaterвЂ¦ пѓјBoth the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes were DEFEATED in 1066 by William, duke of Normandy (The NORMANS). Battle of Hastings TransitionвЂ¦ OKвЂ¦so we know the succession of differing peoples/groups leading up to, and after, the Anglo-Saxons: Iberians Celts Romans Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (Anglo-Saxons) Danes/Vikings Normans NowвЂ¦ Let us focus our attention back on the ANGLO-SAXONS since that is the time period we are studying, and the time period that Beowulf was often recited in. Different depictions of Beowulf Side Note: пѓјThe new Beowulf movie is not exactly the same as the epic we will be readingвЂ¦ Sorry guysвЂ¦no Angelina Jolie Sorry girlsвЂ¦no bulging abs Censor Box Censor Box Sutton Hoo & The Anglo-Saxons вЂў In 1939 a treasure laden ship-grave was found in Sutton Hoo, Suffolk, England вЂў This Sutton Hoo treasure ship is said to have been buried for 1300 yrs. QuickTimeв„ў and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Helmet Ship Dig Quic kTime в„ў and a de compress or are n eede d to s ee th is p ictu re. ThusвЂ¦ вЂў The treasures of Sutton HooвЂ™s ship showed that the Anglo-Saxons were NOT barbarians Sutton Hoo QuickTimeв„ў and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTim eв„ў and a decom pressor are needed to see this pi cture. Ship Treasures QuickTim eв„ў and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTim eв„ў and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture. Anglo-Saxon Life вЂў Even though the treasures proved them not barbariansвЂ¦ вЂў The Anglo-Saxons did not lead a life of luxury вЂў Nor were their lives dominated by learning or the arts Anglo-Saxon Life вЂў Instead, WARFARE was the order of the day вЂў As displayed in Beowulf, for the AngloSaxons, law and order were the responsibility of the leader of any given group вЂў Groups: Family, Clan, Tribe, or Kingdom Anglo-Saxon Life вЂў Fame and success, even survival, were gained only through loyalty to the leader вЂў Success was measured in gifts from the leader вЂў This WILL be seen in Beowulf Anglo-Saxon Life вЂў This pattern of loyal dependency was basic to Anglo-Saxon life вЂў Such loyalty grew out of a need to protect the group from the terrors of an enemy infested wildernessвЂ¦ (Grendel) вЂў A wilderness that became particularly frightening during the long, bonechilling nights of winter Anglo-Saxon Life вЂў Anglo-Saxons tended to liveвЂ¦ вЂў close to their animals in single-family homesteads вЂў these homesteads were wooden buildings that surrounded a communal court or warm, firelit chieftainвЂ™s hall. вЂў This cluster of buildings was protected by a wooden stockade fence Anglo-Saxon Life QuickTimeв„ў and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeв„ў and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Reconstructed AngloSaxon Buildings QuickTimeв„ў and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Anglo-Saxon Life вЂў This arrangement, which WILL be seen in Beowulf, contributed to a sense of security and to the close relationship between leader and followers вЂў It also encouraged community discussion and rule by consensus More on Religion #1 вЂў Despite the influence of Christianity, some of the old Anglo-Saxon religion, with its warrior gods, persisted вЂў The Anglo-Saxon religion that remained was a dark, fatalistic religion, that had been brought from Germany and is believed to have much in common with Norse or Scandinavian mythology More on Religion #2 вЂў Norse Gods: вЂў Odin: the god of death, poetry, and magic вЂў The Anglo-Saxon name for Odin was вЂњWodenвЂќ (WodenвЂ™s day=Wednesday) Quic kTime в„ў and a de compress or are n eede d to see t his pic ture. Odin/Woden More on Religion #3 вЂў Norse Gods: вЂў Thunor: the god of thunder and lightning вЂў The Anglo-Saxon name for Thunor was вЂњThorвЂќ (ThorвЂ™s day=Thursday) QuickTimeв„ў and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Thunor/Thor QuickTimeв„ў and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickT imeв„ў and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeв„ў and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. AlsoвЂ¦ вЂў Another significant figure in AngloSaxon mythology is the dragon вЂў The dragon is the personification of вЂњdeath and devourerвЂќ вЂў The dragon is also the guardian of the grave mound in which a warriorвЂ™s ashes and treasure lay QuickTimeв„ў and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. OverallвЂ¦ вЂў The Anglo-Saxon religion seems to have been more concerned with ethics than mysticism вЂў More specifically, they were concerned with the earthly virtues of bravery, loyalty, generosity, and friendship The Singing of Gods and Heroes вЂў Not only did the Anglo-Saxon communal hall provide a place for shelter and council meetingsвЂ¦ вЂў But also, it provided spaces for storytellers and their audiences QuickTim eв„ў and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture. The Singing of Gods and Heroes вЂў These skilled storytellers/bards (such as the storytellers in Homeric Greece more than 1,000 years earlier) sang of gods and heroes вЂў The Anglo-Saxons called these storytellers scops Quick Tim eв„ў and a dec om pres sor are needed to see t his pic ture. The Singing of Gods and Heroes вЂў These scops were held in the same superiority as warriors вЂў The Anglo-Saxons felt creating poetry was as important as fighting, hunting, farming, or loving Death & Poetry вЂў For the non-Christian Anglo-Saxon, life is hard, ends only in death, and there is no hope of an afterlife вЂў Thus, only fame, and its commemoration in poetry could provide a defense against death and a sense of lasting immortality. вЂў Hence, why bards were considered so important AlsoвЂ¦ вЂў Unlike England and the rest of Europe in the 5th centuryвЂ¦ вЂў Ireland was not overrun by Germanic invaders вЂў Then, in 432, the whole of Celtic Ireland was converted to Christianity Ireland ContinuedвЂ¦ вЂў From 432-750 while England sank into constant warefare, confusion, and ignoranceвЂ¦ вЂў Ireland experienced a golden age вЂў Winston Churchill stated that is was in Ireland вЂњburned and gleamed through the darknessвЂќ that Christianity Ireland ContinuedвЂ¦ вЂў Christian Irish monks founded monasteries that became sanctuaries of learning for refugee scholars from Europe and England вЂў These monasteries existed right alongside the older Anglo-Saxon religion Remember, printing was still 800 yrs. away in England QuickTim eв„ў and a decom pressor are needed to see this picture. The LinkвЂ¦ вЂў In fact, the Christian monks in the monasteries preserved not only the Latin and Greek classics but also some of the great Anglo-Saxon literature/ stories, such as Beowulf, that were being told by the scops The Rise of the English Language вЂў Latin alone remained the language of serious study in England until the time of King Alfred вЂў Alfred instituted the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Quic kTime в„ў and a de compress or are n eede d to see t his pict ure. Qui ckTimeв„ў and a decompressor are needed to see this pi cture. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle вЂў This was a lengthy running history of England вЂў Partly because of King AlfredвЂ™s efforts, English began to gain respect as a language of culture вЂў Thus, the chronicle displayed some use of English/Old English (Old English: The language Beowulf was composed in) FinallyвЂ¦ Any Questions?